Caimito is a tree with a spreading
crown, growing to a height of 15 meters. Branches are numerous and slender, the
young tips are copper-colored and covered with appressed hairs. Leaves are leathery,
ovate or oblong, 7.5 to 13 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, blunt or rounded at the base and covered underneath with silky,
golden-brown, soft hairs. Flowers are purplish-white, small and clustered
in the axils of leaves, with 5 sepals, and a tubular corolla with 5 lobes. Fruit is large and rounded, 6 to 10 centimeters in
diameter, shiny and smooth, purplish or light-green skin, with a
translucent whitish or purplish, soft pulp surrounding flattened seeds about
1 to 1.5 centimeters long. The flesh, contains a small amount of milky juice, somewhat fibrous, sweet, mild and pleasant tasting.
- Cultivated for its edible
fruit and as an ornamental tree.
- Recently introduced from tropical America.
- Seed contains saponin,
0.19%; pouterin, 0.0037%; a bitter principle (lucumin), 1.2%; a fixed oil, 6.6%; and dextrose, 2.4%.
- Leaves contain an amorphous bitter principle, some alkaloids, and no
- Bark is rich in tannin.
- Analysis for volatile constituents yielded 104 compounds in the aroma concentrate. Major constituents were: (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, limonene, linalool, α-copaene and hexadecanoic acid. (8)
- Various extracts of fresh fruits yielded nine known polyphenolic antioxidants viz. (+)-catechin (1), (−)-epicatechin (2), (+)-gallocatechin (3), (−)-epigallocatechin (4), quercetin (5), quercitrin (6), isoquercitrin (7), myricitrin (8), and gallic acid. (see studies below) (2)
-Study of pulp and seed yielded varying concentrations of saponin, flavonoids, tannin,steroid and cardiac glycoside. Study also yielded vitamins (vitamin A, 0.027to 0.089 mg; vitamin C 10.00 to 43.54 mg) and minerals (calcium 37.0, magnesium 5.0, phosphorus 8.0, potassium 38.0 and sodium 21.0 mg). Proximate analysis yielded protein 1.96 to 4.63 g, moisture 56.04 to 75.90g, fat 0.88 to 15.81 g, fiber 2.31 go 4.19 g, ash 0.56 to 0.84 g, and carbohydrate 18.39 to 79.90 g. (see study below) (16)
- Phytochemical fractions of leaves yielded (% content): fats and waxes 0.934 ± 0.045, terpenoids and phenolics 4.004 ± 0.122, alkaloids 0.166 ± 0.068, quaternary alkaloids and n-oxides 10.678 ± 0.035, and fibers 71.122 ± 0.136. (18)
- Nutrient analysis per 100 gm of edible portion yielded
2.33 gm, carbohydrates 14.65 gm, water 73.23 gm, fiber 3.30 gm, calories 67.2; vitamins: riboflavin 0.4 mg, thiamine 0.08 mg, niacin 1.340 mg, ascorbic acid 15.2 mg, vitamin B6 0.200 mg; minerals: iron 2.33 mg, calcium 14.65 mg, phosphorus 73.23 mg, magnesium 3.30, potassium 67.2 mg. (21)
- Seed is tonic, diuretic and febrifuge.
- Pectoral, tonic, stimulant.
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant properties.
Seeds, leaves, bark, fruit
• Fruit eaten ripe, with a sweet and flavorful pulp.
• Used as ice cream and sherbet ingredient
• In Jamaica, made into preserves.
• Ati Negrito use decoction of leaves as wash or hot compress for postpartum needs. Decoction of leaves drunk for abdominal pain. (26)
• The Aytas burn dried leaves for insect repellency. (17)
• Used by Ifugao migrants of the Sierra Madre for diarrhea.
In Mexico, decoction
of the bark given for dysentery.
• In Costa Rica, infusion of bark is tonic and refreshing.
• Tonic: Infusion of the bark is tonic and refreshing.
• Latex is used for abscesses.
• Dried latex used as anthelmintic.
• In some countries, the fruit is used for diabetes.
• Bitter seed sometimes used as tonic, for diarrhea and fevers.
• Fruit eaten for inflammation in laryngitis and pneumonia.
• Used for diabetes.
• Decoction used for angina.
• In the Ivory Coast, decoction of leaves used for hypertension. Leaf decoction also used for diabetes.
• In Venezuela, unripe fruit used
for intestinal problems.
• In Puerto Rico, fruit used in treatment of diabetes.
• Decoction of bark used as tonic and stimulant; used for diarrhea,
dysentery, hemorrhages and treatment of gonorrhea.
• Cubans in Miami reported to use
the leaf decoction for cancer treatment.
• In Brazil, bark latex used resolutive on abscesses;
and as a potent vermifuge when dried and powdered.
• Poultice of grated leaves applied to wounds. Leaf decoction used for hypoglycemia. Fruit used for treating fever and hemorrhage. (13)
• Timber: Yields a brown and hard, but no durable wood. Used for indoor construction: planking, light framing, interior trim, shelving, paneling, etc.
• Dye: Bark yields tannin and dyestuff. (13)
• Paper: Good quality paper can be obtained from the wood. (13)
• Polyphenolic Antioxidants / Fruits:
Study on various fruit extracts yielded nine known phenolic antioxidants. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, and of the compounds, compound 5 (quercetin) showed the highest antioxidant activity. (see constituents above)
• Anthocyanin Antioxidant: Study of extracts of 12 edible fruits showed nine to exhibit
high antioxidant activity; C cainito yielded cyanidin-3-O-ß-glucopyranoside,
an anthocyanin antioxidant. (3)
• Vasorelaxant: A preliminary
study on the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions of the
bark of Chrysophyllum cainito L. in isolated rat thoracic aorta:
Methanolic bark extract study on rats showed vasorelaxant activity on
the smooth muscle. (5)
• Lectin Activity: Plant
samples of 178 species and 62 families were studied for lectin activity.
Potent lectins possessing more than 100,000 unites per gram were found
in the fruits extracts of C arabica and Chrysophyllum cainito. (4)
• Antidiabetic Activity / Leaves: Study of the aqueous decoction of C cainito leaves showed hypoglycemic activity at doses of ≥ 20 g/l. From 30 g/l, the plant would exert a toxic effect. The hypoglycemic effect was mainly attributed to alkaloids, sterols, or triterpenes. (6)
• Hypotensive Effect: Phytochemical study attributes the hypotensive effect flavonoids with vasodilation effect and inhibition of adrenergic receptors. (7)
• Glue Effect: Study explored the potential of star apple extract as glue. Results showed the glue from the star apple extract can be used as a substitute for commercial glue. (12)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Hypersensitivity Effects / Leaves: Study of crude methanolic extract of leaves demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-hypersensitivity effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema and hypersensitivity. Reduction of hypersensitivity attributed to isolated compound Lup-20(29)-en-3β-O-hexanoate > than 3β-Lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate. (14)
• Antimicrobial / Pulp and Seed Extracts: Study showed C. cainito has great potential as antimicrobial agent against selected pathogens and use in the treatment of enteric bacterial infections. (see constituents above) (16)
• Antihypertensive / Pulp and Seed Extracts: Study evaluated pulp extracts and fractions for in vitro (inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme/ACE assay), ex vivo (isolated aorta relaxation assay), and in vivo (salt induced hypertensive rat assay). An ALE-EAF reduced the elevated arterial pressure of salt induced hypertensive rat significantly to the level of normotensive animal group. (19)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of environmentally friendly silver nanoparticles using C. cainito leaves. (20)
• Palladium Nanoparticles / Catalytic Activity / Leaves: Study reports on a simple and green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using a leaf extract of C. cainito. The synthesized PdNPs have been utilized as a green catalyst for C-C coupling reactions. The PdNPs can retain catalytic activity for several months. (25)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid Effects / Fruits: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of C. cainito fruits against experimentally induced diabetes using alloxan and STZ. Acute toxicity study using the hydroalcoholic extract showed safety at dose of 2000 mg kbw. Results showed a dose dependent significant decrease in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL levels with an increase in HDL. Results were comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. (22)
• Effect on Intestinal Motility / Leaves:Study evaluated a leaf extract of C. cainito on intestinal motility of white mice. Results showed the test drugs were not statistically different from the positive control in terms of antimotility effect but the effective antimotility dose were seen in medium and high doses (p=0.0029 and p=0.0099) respectively. (23)
• Immunosuppressive on Macrophage Functions / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of methanol extract of C. cainito leaves on macrophage functions. Results showed significant dose dependent inhibition of phagocytosis and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α as well as NO and H2O2 release by the macrophages. Study showed an immunosuppressive effect on murine macrophages, without effects on cell viability. GC-MS analysis showed lupeol acetate and alpha-amyrin acetate as principal components. (24)
• Cosmetic Application / Anti-Protein Glycation / Anti-Aging: Patent applied for an invention in the fields of cosmetic, relating to products for controlling skin aging and a cosmetic composition that includes an aqueous fruit extract of C. cainito. The application demonstrated that an extract of CC inhibits the glycation of proteins which protects the functionality of the skin cells. (27)
• Induction of Cell Death
In Osteosarcoma Cells / Polyphenolic Fraction: Study evaluated a polyphenolic fraction from C. cainito fruits for its effect on U-2 osteosarcoma (ATCC HTB-96) cell line of human osteosarcoma. The highest effect as increased caspase specific activity was observed at extract concentration of 300 µg GAE/mL. The effect of extract concentration on production of ROS can be related with apoptosis. Study suggested that apoptosis by ROS is the mechanism used by the compounds in the extract. Results suggest C. cainito has great potential and can be source of lead novel molecule for allopathic medicines for the treatment of osteosarcoma. (28)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated C. cainito leaves
for wound healing potential in male albino Wistar rats using an excision wound model. Topical application of standardized ethanolic extract on excision wounds showed significant faster reduction in wound area and significant increase in tissue biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, hexosamine and protein compared to untreated control. (29)
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer /
Fruit: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of peels, seeds, and pulp of Chrysophyllum cainito fruit and fruit flour for gastroprotective potential in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer. All the extracts increased mucin production. However, the extracts did not reduce gastric acid secretion. Supplementation with C. cainito fruit flour displayed gastroprotective potential. Results suggest an antiulcer effect by favoring of mucosal protective mechanisms, together with complementary protective effects of the flour from C. cainito fruit. (31)
• Haemostatic Effect: Study evaluated the haemostatic effect of an aqueous extract of C. cainito on blood of albino rats. The administration of AECc caused a reduction in the time of bleeding. The presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in AECs make the substance antihemorrhagic. (32)
- Cultivated for its edible fruit.
- Seasonal market produce.
- Tinctures of bark, leaves and fruits in the cybermarket.