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Family Gramineae / Poaceae
Bukawe
Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.) Backer
GIANT BAMBOO
Ma lai ma zhu

Scientific names Common names
Arundarbor aspera Rumph. Bukawe (Tag.)
Arundarbor bitung (Schult.) Kuntze. Botong (Bik.)
Arundo aspera (Schult.f.) Oken Butong (Bis.)
Arundo piscatoria Lour. Dragon bamboo (Engl.)
Bambusa aspera Schult.f. Giant bamboo (Engl.)
Bambusa bitung Schult.f. Indonesian asper (Engl.)
Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.) Backer Rough asper (Engl.)
Dendrocalamus flagellifer Munro Rough bamboo (Engl.)
  Sweet bamboo (Engl.)
Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.) Backer is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ma lai ma zhu (Taiwan).
INDONESIAN: Bambu betung.
JAVA: Deling petung.
LAOTIAN: Hok.
MALAY: Buloh betong, Buloh beting, Buloh panching.
SINGAPORE: Rebong china.
SUNDANESE: Awi bitung.
THAI: Phai tong.
VIETNAMESE: Tre manhtong, Manh tong, Cay truc.

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Gen info
- Dendrocalamus asper is one of the seven most commercially marketed shoots in China, Thailand and Taiwan.
- It has recently been grown under a commercial setting. EcoPlanet Bamboo is the first to grow D. asper from seed with the development of a million plant nursery. In 2015, EcoPlanet Bamboo became the first entity globally to grow the species commercially in partnership with the Ghana Forestry Commission. (4)
- In Thailand, planted area of D. asper is estimated at 6000 ha. In Prachinburi Province, shoot production in 1984 was 37.975 t from 4465 ha. Price was 2-8 Baht/kg, depending on time of year. (8)

Botany
Dendrocalamus asper is a giant tropical, dense-clumping species, growing 15 to 20 meters tall, 8 to 12 centimeters in diameter. Culms are grayish green, becoming dull brown on drying. Lower nodes of young culms are covered with golden brown hairs. Young shoots are brownish black. Internode length is 25 to 60 centimeters. Culm walls are generally very thick. Nodes are prominent. Culm sheath is straw-colored, large and broad; the top of the sheath rounded, the auricles small. Mature culms grown very straight, tapering only at the upper level, showing very little branching. Flowers are intermittent, with long time intervals. Seed is very fragile, with high seedling mortality. (4)

Distribution
- Introduced.
- Native to Southeast Asia.

Constituents
- Macronutrient analysis (g/100 g fresh weight) of freshly emerged juveniles shoots yielded: amino acids 3.12 ± 0.07, proteins 3.59 ± 0.06, carbohydrates 4.90 ± 0.11, starch 0.36 ± 0.08, fat 0.40 ± 0.06, vitamin C 3.20 ± 0.06, vitamin E 0.91 ± 0.13, ash 0.95 ± 0.03, moisture 89.40 ± 0.98, dietary fiber 3.54 ± 0.07.  (3)
- GC-MS pyrolisis of ethanolic extract of leaves showed major compounds of fatty acids, along with ester, long chain alcohols, and alkehydes. (see study below) (7)
- Chemical composition of culm is approximately: holocellulose 53%, pentosans 10%, lignin 25%, ash 3%, Solubility in cold water is 4.5%, hot water 6%, alcohol-benzene 1%, 1% NaOH 22%. (8)

Properties
- Sympodial, without lateral growth; thus, with no invasive properties. (4)
- Studies have shown nutritional, antibacterial properties.


Parts used
Leaves, shoots..

Uses

Edibility
- Young shoots are eaten as vegetable; also pickled and preserved.
- In Asia, one of the most popular edible bamboo shoots.
- Considered by some as the best among edible tropical Asiatic bamboos. (8)
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Indonesia, shoots used for treatment of hypertension. (5)
Others
- Construction: Culms are thick-walled, strong, and durable. Used for heavy construction owing to its straight and large-diameter culms.

- Ethnoveterinary: Leaves used for treatment of diarrhea in animals. (7)
- Cooking pots: In Sarawak, used as cooking pots in the field; the internode is opened at one end or the node, then filled with vegetables, meal, rice, and water, covered and placed on fire. (8)

Studies
Nutrient Value:
In a study of fresh shoots of bamboo species, five species, B. tulda, B. bambos, Dendrocalamus asper, D. gigantea and D hamiltonii were nutritionally better than the rest. Freshly emerging shoots are nutritionally superior to older emerged shoots. While nutrient components of the shoots were depleted with aging, the dietary fiber and moisture contents were increased. Study suggests high potential for the commercial production of shoots. (see constituents above). (3) There was a significant decrease in free amino acids in 10-day-old shoots compared to freshly harvested shoots. Protein content in 8-day shoots,1.21 g/100g fresh weight, decreased to 0.86 g/100g fresh weight after another 10 days. There was a significant rise in carbohydrate content after boiling, which may be due to hydrolysis of complex polysaccharides into single monosaccharide sugar units. Aging was also associated with changes in constituent levels. Boiling in higher concentration of salt for longer duration also decreased the phenol content of shoots. (6)
Taxiphyllin in Shoots: Bamboo shoots contain varying among of cyanogen glycosides called taxiphyllin. ß-glycosidase which is released in disrupted bamboo shoot tissues acts n taxiphyllin to produced harmful hydrogen cyanide. The harmful cyanide should be removed before human consumption. The most edible species yield high amount of cyanogen glycoside with maximum concentration found at the shoot tip. Shoots with high toxic levels of cyanogenic compounds can be made edible via detoxification with boiling water for about 2 hours. The cyanogen in shoots of D. asper and B. tulda was significantly lowered without much reduction of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, potassium, phosphorus and sodium when shoots were boiled for 25 minutes i 1%, 5%, and 10% NaCl solution. Superheated steam at over 116°C can also remove HCN. (6)
Antibacterial / Antidiarrheagenic / E. coli / Leaf: Study evaluated various leaf extracts of D. asper for antibacterial activity against diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Micro-dilution assay of ethanolic extract of D. asper leaves with yield of 28.47 ± 3.76% (w/w) was most effective in inhibiting E. coli strains. (see constituents above) (7)
4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid (4-hba) / Lowering of Membrane Potential / Shoots: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is a non-flavonoid phenol found abundantly in D. asper shoots, fruits (strawberries and apples) and flowers. Kv1.4 is a rapidly inactivating Shaker-related member of the voltage-gated potassium channels with two inactivation mechanisms playing vital roles in repolarisation hyperpolarisation, and signaling the restoration of resting membrane potential through regulation of movement of K+ across cellular membrane. Study showed that 4-hba in D. asper bamboo shoots can enhance the activities of Kv1.4 potassium channels, contributing to the reduction of membrane excitation. Results provide leads to identify other compounds with potential antiepileptic properties. (9)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated.

- Seeds in the cybermarket.

 

June 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Dendrocalamus asper / click on image to go to source page / © Dave's Garde
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Leaves of Dendrocalamus asper / UF•IFAS / Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas / © UF•IFAS
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. - quickstick GLSE2 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Fruit of Syzygium samarangense / Wax apple / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org
flickr /
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Dendrocalamus asper / Synonyms / The Plant List

(2)
Sorting Dendrocalamus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.
(3)
Nutritional Properties of Bamboo Shoots: Potential and Prospects for Utilization as a Health Food / Nirmala Chongtham, Madho Singh Bisht, and Sheena Haorongbam / Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2011; Vol 10 / doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00147.x

(4)dendDendDe
Dendrocalamus asper / Wikipedia
(5)
Dig up knowledge of bamboo for healing / Wawan Sujarwo / The Jakarta Post
(6)
The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India / P Nongdam and Leimapokpam Tikendra / Int Sch Res Notices, 2014; 2014: 679073 / doi: 10.1155/2014/679073 / PMCID: PMC4897250 / PMID: 27433496
(7)
Antibacterial Activity of Petung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Asper) Leaf Extract Against Pathogenic  Escherichia coli and Their Chemical Identification  / Noryawati Mulyono, , Bibiana W. Lay, Sri Rahayu, , Indri Yapriant / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives, 2012; 3(4): pp 770-778 
(8)
Dendrocalamus asper / PROSEA / Pl@nt Use
(9)
Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) Shoots on Kv1.4 Channel / Jingli Zhang, Fatin H Mohamad, Jia Hui Wong, Malin Abdullah et al / Malays J Med Sci., Feb 2018; 25(1): pp 101-113 / doi: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.12 / PMCID: PMC5862056 / PMID: 29599640
(10)
Effects of Vitrofural, BAP and meta-Topolin in the in vitro culture of Dendrocalamus asper/ T S Omellas, D Werner, D F Holderbaum, R F Scherer, M P Guerra / International Society for Horticultural Science

                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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