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Family Fabaceae
Rose of Venezuela
Brownea grandicepsJacq..
SCARLET FLAME BEAN
Xiu qiu shu

Scientific names Common names
Brownea amplibracteata Pittier Brownea (Engl.)
Brownea araguensis Pittier Cooper hoop (Engl.)
Brownea ariza Lindl & Paxton Mountain rose (Engl.)
Brownea grandiceps Jacq. Rose of Venezuela (Engl.)
Hermesias grandiceps (Jacq.) Kuntze Scarlet flame bean (Engl.)
Brownea grandiceps Jacq. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiu qiu shu, Qiu hua shu.
INDONESIAN: Bunga ratu.
SPANISH: Rosa del monte, Palo de cruz.

Gen info
- Rose of Venezuela is one of 12 species in the genus Brownea.
- Genus was named in honor of Dr. Patrick Browne, 1720-1790, an Irish botanist and physician. (
8)

Botany
Brownea is a small tree with stout branches, growing to a height of 6 meters. Trunk is grayish-brown with lightly furrowed bark. Shoot and leaf stalks are downy. Leaves are compound, elongated and pinnate with 12 to 18 pairs of oblong or lanceolate leaflets ending in a bristly-like point. Leaflets increase in size from proximal to distal end of the leaf. New leaves are lax, pale green with tiny pink and cream dots, maturing into a uniform shade of green. Infloresences are globular, containing numerous crimson, red, deep pink or purple tubular flowers, each with projecting stamens and style. Flower heads are up to 20 centimeters in diameter, usually dangling below the foliage. Pods are 9 to 13 by 3.5 centimeters, light brown when matured, spindle shaped, entire along margins, shortly beaked at the apex, 2 to 4 seeded. Seeds are 2 by 1.5 centimeters, oval, brown-colored, glabrous, and veined.

Distribution
- Introduced.
- Cultivated for the beautiful flowers.
- A decorative tree in tropical gardens.
- Asia-tropical found in Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea.
- Endemic to Brazil, Ecuador, Honduras, Venezuela and Columbia.

Constituents
- Aqueous extract of flowers yielded tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and coumarins, with absence of triterpenoids and steroids. (see study below) (4)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract yielded catechin (1), quercitrin (2), trans-taxifolin-3-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3), 13R-hydroxy9Z, 11E-octadecadienoic acid (4), and 13R-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-, 15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (5). (see study below) (5)
- LC-MS analysis of bark extract yielded three compound: 6-beta-O-2’,3’-dihydrocinamonyl-12-hydroxy-(13) 15-en-16,12-olide-18-cassaneoic acid (1) Rutin (2), and Quercetin (3). (7)

Properties
- Flowers produce copious amounts of nectar and are attractive to humming birds and butterflies. (3)
- Studies have suggested cytotoxic, anti-menorrhagic, kinase inhibitory, anti-plasmin activities.

Parts used
Flowers, bark.

Uses

Folkloric
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Venezuelan folk medicine, flowers used as anti-hemorrhagic in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia). (4)
- Used for dysentery, diarrhea, and bleeding.
- Infusion of dried flowers used for dysentery. Bark used to reduce bleeding and facilitate clotting of blood. Used as contraceptive by indigenous tribes in the Ecuadorian and Colombian amazon. (8)
Others
- Wood: Used for making small tools and handicrafts.

Studies
Effect on Coagulation and Fibrinolytic System / Flowers:
Study evaluated the in-vitro effects of aqueous extract of B. grandiceps flowers on the coagulation system and fibrinolysis. Prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and thrombin time (TT) were measure to determine the effects on the extrinsic, intrinsic, and common coagulation pathways. Fibrinogenolytic and fibronectinase activities were also evaluated. Results showed the presence of fibrinogenolytic, fibronetinase and anti-FXa components in the extract, plus anti-plasmin compounds with antifibrinolytic action. The anti-plasmin compound, along with pro-coagulant components may be responsible for reducing heavy menstrual bleeding in women, since a deficiency of one or more blood coagulation factors viz. factor 7, 5 and 10 is a potential cause of menorrhagia. (4)
Cytotoxicity / Kinase Inhibitory Effect: Study of ethyl acetate extract of Brownea grandiceps isolated five known isolated metabolites and the cytotoxicity screening of them was performed against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. Quercitrin showed the highest activity against breast cancer. The postulated mechanism of quercitrin was proved by kinase inhibitory effect alongside with docking study. (see constituents above) (5)
Browplasmin / Anti-Plasmin Activity / Flowers: Study evaluated B. grandiceps extract to isolate and characterize the compound responsible for reported anti-fibrinolytic activity. The active compound was a condensed tannin, Browplasminin, which is capable of inhibiting the plasmin activity in a dose-dependent manner. it also has a minor effect on the FXa activity. Results suggest that Browplasminin is a good plasmin inhibitor and could be responsible for reducing heavy menstrual bleeding in women. (6)

Availability
- Ornamental cultivated.

May 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photographs: Brownea grandiceps flower in full bloom / of Brownea grandiceps / Ajatasatru / March 2012 / Creative Commons 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photographs: Brownea grandiceps leaves / Statberlufece / Dec 2009 / Creative Commons 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Colored lithograph of Brownea grandiceps / Charles Lemaire: Flore des serres et des jardins de l'Europe, 1850, Vol 6 (Plate 581-582) / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Brownea grandiceps / Synonyms / The Plant List

(2)
Brownea / Flora Malesiana
(3)
Brownea grandiceps / Wikipedia
(4)
Aqueous Extract From Brownea Grandiceps Flowers With Effect on Coagulation and Fibrinolytic System / Bethabeth Pereira, Josmary Brazon / J Ethnopharmacol., Feb 2015; 160: pp 6-13 /  doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.11.022.
(5)
Cytotoxicity, protein kinase inhibitory activity, and docking studies of secondary metabolites isolated from Brownea grandiceps Jacq / Ehab M Mostafa, Arafa Musa, Mohamed A Abdelgawad, Ehab A Ragab Phcog Mag 2019;15: pp 438-442
(6)
BROWPLASMININ, A CONDENSED TANNIN WITH ANTI-PLASMIN ACTIVITY ISOLATED FROM AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BROWNEA GRANDICEPS JACQ. FLOWERS / Betzabeth Pereira, Josmary Brazón, Mónica Rincón, Eva Vonasek / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2017; 198: pp 282-290 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.01.012 / PMID: 28089737
(7)
Brazilian Tree Bark Analysis by LC-MS Quercetin, rutin, and compound 1 / HPLC Application Note / COGENT: Diamond Hydride
(8)
Rose of Venezuela / Latha Girish / FLORICULTURE

                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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