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Family Asteraceae / Compositae
Boton
Adenostemma lavenia (Linn.) O. Kuntze
COMMON MEDICINE PLANT

Ma zhi hu

Scientific names Common names
Adenostemma lavenia (Linn.) O. Kuntze Añgañgit (Ig.)

Adenostemma platyphyllum (Linn.) O. Kuntze

Boton (Tag.)
Adenostemma viscosum J. R. & G. Forst. Bulak-manok (Tag., Pamp.)
Verbesina lavenia Linn. Boton (Tag.)
  Dolomnena-babaii (If.)
  Panikit (Bon.)
  Salindukot (Buk.)
  Ubat-lastung (Sul.)
  Adenostemma (Engl.)
  Common medicine plant (Engl.)
  Dungweed (Engl.)
  Sticky daisy (Engl.)
Bulak-manok is a local common name shared by (1) Adenostemma lavenia, boton, dungweed, and (2) Ageratum conyzoides, billy goat weed.

Other vernacular names
CHAMORRO: Bulak-manuk, Chaguan-chiba, Chaguan-manuk
CHINESE: Ma zhi hu.
HAWAIIAN: Kamanamana
HINDI: Jangli-jira.
KONKANI: Ghanerem.
SPANISH: Mama juana, Tia juana
VIETNAMESE: Co mich, Cuc dinh, Cham la lon, Tuyen hung.


Botany
Boton is an erect, smooth or hairy, annual, slender or rather stout herb 0.3 to 1 meter in height. Leaves are thin, opposite, the upper ones alternate, oblong to broadly ovate, and 5 to 15 centimeters long, with a pointed apex, and entire or scalloped margins. Inflorescence is lax, the heads 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter. Flowers are very small and white, with the corolla hairy near the mouth. Fruit is an achene, rough or covered with wrinkles, crowned by a glandular ring bearing 3 to 5 club-shaped, short lobes.

Distribution
- In open, wet places along streams, in forests and thickets, from sea level to an altitude of 1,800 meters, in the Babuyan Islands; in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Viscaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Quezon and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Culion, Catanduanes, Camiguin de Misamis, and Mindanao.
- Pantropic.
- Also reported in China, Indo-China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, Micronesia, and Polynesia..

Constituents
- Study of volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts identified 35 chemical compounds accounting for 99.56% of the volatile oil. The main components were: α-cubebene (32.62%), caryophyllene (24.97%) and γ-elemen (5.53%). Other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were α-caryophyllene, α-chamigrene, bicyclo [4,3,0]-7-methylene-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-vinyl nonane, γ-terpinen, d-limonene, α-pinene and 2-carene.
- Leaves yield essential oil and alkaloids.

Properties
- Considered stimulant, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, sternutatory..

Parts used
Leaves, roots, juice.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, leaf preparation used as antispasmodic and the leaf juice as stimulant.
- In La Reunion, leaves are used as antispasmodic; the fresh juice as stimulant and sternutatory.
- The Malays use the plant for poultices to apply to the head and ulcerations of the nose; also used in diarrhea.
- In Malacca, decoction of roots used for stomachaches.
- In the Dutch Indies, lotion of leaves used to arrest baldness; paste of leaves used as poultice for sun-burned skin; scorched leaves are applied to ulcers and to help ripen boils.
- In
Taiwan, whole plant used to treat lung congestion, pneumonia, edema and inflammation.
- Juice of the plant used for dysentery; along with Centella asiatica and Phyllanthus niruri, used for colic.
- Leaf chewed with a little areca nut and some lime to treat coughs.
- Leaves used in washing hair to prevent falling hair.
- In
Kerala, leaves used as antiseptic; fresh juice used as stimulant and sternutatory.. (5)
- Salted leaves used for sore throats.
- Root or the plant is chewed to stop diarrhea.
- In Taiwan folk medicine, used for treating lung congestion, edema, pneumonia, and inflammation.
Others
- Dye: A. viscosum used in the preparation of indigo dye.


Studies
Kaurane-type Diterpenes / Cytotoxicity:
Study yielded ten 11-oxygenated kauran-19-oic acids and their nine glycosides, paniculosides II and III and adenostemmosides A-G. ent-11α-Hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and adenostemmoic acid B showed cytotoxic activity against L-5178Y cultured cell and prolonged the survival of mice. (2)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update June 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Adenostemma viscosum / Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, Compose?es, vol. 189(1): p. 203 (1960) [n.d.] / Illustration contributed by the Misouri Botanical Garden / Plant Illustrations
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Adenostemma viscosum auct. non R.E. Fr. [as Ageratum strictum Sims] / Curtis�s Botanical Magazine, vol. 50: t. 2410 (1823) [J. Curtis] / Plant Illustrations

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil in Adenostemma lavenia (L.) O. Ktze. / Yang Yong-li, Guo Shon-jun et al / Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 2007-04 / DOi: CNKI:SUN:RYZB.0.2007-04-014
(2)
Kaurane-Type Diterpenes from Adenostemma lavenia O. KUNTZE /
(3)
Adenostemma viscosum / GLOBinMED
(4)
Adenostemma platyphyllum / Common names / PIER
(5)
BOTANICAL STUDIES IN THE MEDICINAL PLANT CONSERVATION AREAS IN KERALA / N. Sasidharan S. Chand Bhasha C. Renuka / KFRI Research Report 99, Sept 1004.


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