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Family Cibotiaceae / Cyatheceae

Borabor
Cibotium barometz (Linn.) J. Sm.
SCYTHIAN LAMB

Jin mao gou ji

Scientific names Common names
Aspidium barometz (L.) Willd. Borabor (Ilk.)
Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm. Borabor ta paku (Ilk.)
Dicksonia barometz (L.) Link. Sabong ti borabor (Ilk.)
Nephrodium barometz (L.) Sweet. Salagisog (Bik.)
Polypodium barometz L. Tinampa (Ig.)
  Salagisog (Bik.)
  Golden chicken fern (Engl.)
  Golden hair dog fern (Engl.)
  Chain fern (Engl.)
  Scythian lamb (Engl.)
  Wooly fern (Engl.)
Cibotium barometz (L.) J.Sm. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jinmao gou ji.
JAPANESE: Taka warabi, Hitsuji shida
MALAYSIA: Pengawar djambi

Gen info
- During the middle ages, referred to as the mythical "Vegetable Lamb of Tartary" because of the resemblance of the rhizomes to a lamb. The "lamb" is exposed by removing the leaves from the woolly rhizome, which when inverted fancifully resembles a woolly lamb for by the base of the cut stalks.

Botany
- Borabor is a large fern growing to a meter or more in height, covered with dense yellow hairs at the base. Fronds are a meter or two long, ovate, hardly tripinnate and glabrous beneath. Lower pinnae are ovate-lanceolate, 30 to 60 centimeters long. Pinnules are linear-lanceolate. Sori are 2 to 12, rarely one, on each side of the segment. The indusium is brownish.

Distribution
- Found in the mountains, from Luzon to Mindanao.
- Native to parts of China and the western part of the Malay peninsula.
- Extends from Assam across Malaysia.

Constituents
• Rhizomes yield 30% starch. The yellow fuzz yields tannin and pigments.
• Rhizomes yield fatty acid (oleic, palmitic, and octadecanoic acid), flavonoids (kaempferol, onychin).

• Study yielded nine compounds viz. palmitic acid(Ⅰ), β-sitosterol (Ⅱ), 1-mono-palmitin (Ⅲ), daucosterol (Ⅳ), caffeic acid(Ⅴ), protocatechuic acid(Ⅵ), protocatechuic aldehyde (Ⅶ), n-butyl-β-D-fructopyranoside(Ⅷ) and D-glucose(Ⅸ). (13)
• Study isolated a new phenolic compound, 4-O-caffeoyl-D-glucopyranose, from the rhizome of C. barometz. (17)
• Phytochemical screening of rhizomes for antioxidant constituents yielded several compounds such as protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid and shinbarometin (2-O-(9Z,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-3-O-[α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1′′→6')-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl]glycerol). (19)

Properties
• Considered anodyne, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, tonic, styptic.
• Studies suggest antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-osteoporotic properties.

Parts utilized
Hairy filaments, rhizomes.

Uses
Edibility
• In Chinese medicine, Rhizoma cibotti is a main ingredient with other Chinese herbs to pickle wine for use as a tonic drink.
Folkloric
• In the Philippines rhizomes are used as topical for wounds and ulcers.
• Rhizome hairs used as hemostatic poultice for wounds.
• Used for osteodynia, leucorrhea, dysuria, polyuria.
•In Chinese medicine, used to tonify yang; used as antirheumatic, for strengthening the bones and muscles, and to replenish the liver, kidneys and the male generative organs. Recommended as an "old man's remedy." Roots also used for the treatment of lumbar pain, numbness, hemiplegia, leucorrhea, spermatorrhea, tumors, and bleeding in women.
• Also used for frequent enuresis.
• In China and Malaysia rhizomes are used as styptic for coagulating the blood to arrest capillary hemorrhages.
• In Malaya long hairs from the rhizomes used as styptic to coagulate blood to stop capillary hemorrhages.
• In Vietnam rhizomes are used to treat rheumatism, lumbago, neuralgia, sciatica, enuresis and body aches in pregnant women.
• In Europe hairy filaments from stipes used as hemostatic in wounds.
Others
• One of 30 components in a Chinese herb pill used in regimen of therapy- herb therapy, foot massage, leg traction and exercise - for femoral head necrosis.

Studies
Sesquiterpenes / Permeability Studies: Study yielded three unusual sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes. Compound 1 was assigned good human intestinal absorption and permeability. (2)
Osteoclast Inhibition/ Constituents / Anti-Osteoporosis: Study of methanol extract yielded 8 compounds including two new furan derivatives ( cibotiumbarosides A and B) and a new glycoglycerolipid (cibotiglycerol). Compounds 2 to 5 showed inhibition of osteoclast formation with no effect on BMM cell viability. Results suggest a potential for developing new treatments for osteoporosis. (3)
Antioxidative / Antibacterial: Study of leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns that included C barometz showed it to exhibit antioxidative potential. All the ferns showed antibacterial activity. (4)
Alkaline Phosphatase / Osteoblast Effect: Study examined the ability of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB1) with natural medicine supplementation. Results indicate M radix, Cibotium barometz, A cortex, C herba have inducing ability on ALP synthesis on osteoblast. (7)
Antiosteoporosis Effect: Study evaluated the effects of CB extract on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed the treatment can enhance bone strength and prevent the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, and presents a potential alternative for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (9)
Inhibition of SARS-CoV Replication: In a study of more than 200 extracts to evaluate anti-SARS-CoV activities, six herbal extracts, including Cibotium barometz, were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV. Results suggest a potential for the extracts as candidates for the development of anti-SARS therapeutics. (10)
Rhizomes / Antioxidant Effect: Rhizoma cibotii exhibited effective in vitro antioxidant activity, which may results from radical-scavenging and reducing power, attributed to the total phenolics, especially caffeic acid, one of the bioactive components.
Chinese Herbal Medicine for Osteoporosis: In China, herb extract used to treat osteoporosis, preventing total BMD decrease in the femur induced by OVX, accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling, as evidenced by decreased levels of bone turnover markers i.e., osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, deoxypyridinoline and urinary Ca and P excretions. (12)
Effect on Adjuvant Arthritis: Study investigated the effect of CB on adjuvant arthritis.. Results showed CB decreased the blood rheology indexes, increased the weight of the mouse and the organs' weight, inhibited the turgenscence of the feet, and increased the content of trace elements in blood, decreased the content of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) in the joint fluid. (14)
Anti-Osteoporosis / Rhizomes: Study evaluated the decoction effect of different processed rhizomes of CB on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in male rats. Results showed the sand-baked and the wined were better than the steamed, salted, and the raw. Findings provide a reference in the processing principles of rhizomes and mechanisms of anti-osteoporosis. (16)
Neuronal Regeneration / Shinbarometin / Root: Study of roots isolated onitin (I), daucosterol (II) and a new compound (III), characterized as glycerol, named shinbarometin. Compound III exerted an induced neuronal regeneration on nogo-A induced neuroblastoma cells. (18)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Extracts in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update January 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Cibotium barometz - Hong Kong Park Conservatory - IMG 9844.JPG / Daderot / 21.Feb.2011 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: DRAWING / The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary / From Svenska Familj-Journalen, Vol. 18, 1879/ Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: DRAWING /The FREE Dictionary by Farlex
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm. scythian lamb / Köhler, F.E., Medizinal Pflanzen, vol. 4: t. 11 (1890) [Ev.C.] / Illustration contributed by: Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, U.S.A./ PlantIllustrations

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Non-detriment finding for Cibotium barometz in China / Xian-Chun Zhang et al / State Key Laboratory of Systematic & Evolutionary Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
(2)
The constituents of Cibotium barometz and their permeability in the human Caco-2 monolayer cell model / Qi Wu and Xiu-Wei Yang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 125, Issue 3, 25 September 2009, Pages 417-422 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.07.017
(3)
Inhibitors of Osteoclast Formation from Rhizomes of Cibotium barometz / Nguyen Xuan Cuong et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2009, 72 (9), pp 1673-1677 / DOI: 10.1021/np9004097
(4)
Antioxidative, Tyrosinase Inhibiting and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extracts from Medicinal Ferns / How Yee Lai et al / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. 73 (2009) , No. 6 pp.1362-1366
(5)
TREATMENT OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF THE FEMORAL HEAD WITH CHINESE HERBS / Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon

(6)
Plant Compounds Could Be Used in Osteoporosis Treatment / 14 OCT 2009 / Elements4Health
(7)
Effects of Several Herbal Medicines on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Fetal Osteoblasts / Lee MK, Choi HI, You HK, Shin HS / J Korean Acad Periodontol. 2003 Mar;33(1):49-60. Korean.
(8)
Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, Chiina
(9)
Anti-osteoporosis activity of Cibotium barometz extract on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats / Zhao X, Wu ZX, Zhang Y, Yan YB, He Q, Cao PC, Lei W. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1083-8. Epub 2011 Jul 18.
(10)
Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis Inhibit SARS-CoV Replication / Chih-Chun Wen; Lie-Fen Shyur; Jia-Tsrong Jan et al / Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 1 (2011), No.1 (Oct.)
(11)
Vegetable Lamb of Tartary / Wikipedia
(12)
Chinese Herbal Medicine for Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials /
Zhi-qian Wang, Jin-long Li, Yue-li Sun, Min Yao, Jie Gao, Zhu Yang, Qi Shi, Xue-jun Cui, and Yong-jun Wang / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/356260
(13)
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Cibotium Barometz / CHENG Qi-hou, YANG Zhong-lin, Hu Yong-mei / CNKI: Progress In Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2003-05
(14)
Experimental Study on Effect of Cibotium Barometz on Adjuvant Arthritis with Deficiency in the Kidney (DKAA) / WangZhenHai / PhD Thesis, 2005
(15)
Cibotium barometz / Synonyms / The Plant List
(16)
Study on decoction's effect of different processed rhizomes of Cibotium barometz on retinoic acid induced male rats osteoporosis / Xu G, Sun N, Zhao MJ, Ju CG, Jia TZ. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Mar;39(6):1011-5.
(17)
New hydrolysable tannin from Cibotium barometz. / Nan Xu, Yue Cao, Ya-Nan Shi, Xu Zhong, Tian-Zhu Jia /
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2013 Mar;38(5):698-702
(18)
Isolation of the Efficacy Constituent for Neuronal Regeneration from Cibotium barometz / Kim, San-Tae; Han, Yong-Nam; Son, Yeon-Kyoung; Jang, Hyong-Seok; Kim, Su-Jang; Shin, Jun-Shik / YAKHAK HOEJI—Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, V46N6, 2002: pp 398-404
(19)
Antioxidant constituents from the rhizomes of Cibotium barometz / M Ryu, IS Lee / Planta Med 2008; 74 - PA221 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1084219

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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