- Annona mucosa is a species of flowering plant in the custard-apple family, Annonaceae.
A few known cultivars include 'Regnard' in the Philippines (best known, introduced in 1917), 'Prolific' in Florida, and 'Liso' in Brazil. The largest is 'biriba do alto Solimoes', developed in Brazil, which can weigh up to 4 kg, making it the third largest fruit in the Annona family after junglesop and soursop.
Annona muricata is an evergreen, fast-growing, terrestrial, erect, medium-sized tree reaching 5–8 m in height and features an open, roundish canopy, 4-5 meters across. Leaves are light green in color, obovate-oblong, smooth textured with distinct veins at the back like rib bones of a fish. The veins are slight yellow green in color. The leaves hang off long slender branches. Flowers are solitary or in groups of 2-3, hermaphrodite, borne on long pedicels and exhibit protogynous dichogamy. Flowers are borne in leaf axis, 23.5 cm wide, triangular, with 3 hairy sepals, 3 large fleshy outer petals with upturned or horizontal wings, and 3 rudimentary inner petals. Fruit is conical or heart-shaped, 15-20 cm in diameter; the rind yellow and composed of more or less hexagonal, conical segments, each tipped with a wart-like protrusion; nearly 3 mm thick, leathery, tough, and indehiscent. Pulp is white, mucilaginous, translucent, juicy, subacid to sweet, with a flavor reminiscent of lemon meringue pie. Fragile skin contains milky-white, pyramidal shaped carpels, usually containing black seeds. (10)
- Native to warm tropical parts of South and North America.
- Widely introduced and distributed throughout tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
- Study of leaf extracts yielded a new oleanane type triterpene characterized as 3α, 24-diacetoxy-12-oleanene (1), together with nine known compounds. (see study below) (2)
- Methanolic extract of leaves isolated three flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-ß-D-glucoside (1), quercetin 3-O-
α-Darabinoside (2) and kaempferol 3-O-ß-D-galactoside (3). (see study below) (4)
- Bioassay-directed fractionation of stems of Rollinia mucosa isolated new N-methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids, romucosine A (1), romucosine B (2), romucosine C (3), and romucosine D (4), along with known alkaloid, N-methoxycarbonyl-nornuciferine (5). (see study below) (8)
- Bioassay guided study isolated 4 acetogenins, rolliniastatin-1 and -2, jimenezin, and a novel one, and 3 lignana, magnolin, membrin, and eudesmin.
- Study reported on the isolation and identification of two known oxoaporphines, liriodenine and lanuginosine, two known aporphines, anonaine and N-formylanonaine, and a morphinanedienone alkaloid, pallidine.
- Study of ethyl acetate fraction of the partition of ethanolic extract of leaves isolated four flavonoids: isoquercetin (1), hyperin (2), rutin (3), and astralgin (4).
- Study of unripe fruits isolated a new N-methoxycarbonyl aporphine, (-)-3-chlororomucosine A (1).
- Studies have suggested insecticidal, larvicidal, antibacterial, antileishmanial, anxiolytic, sedative, anti-platelet properties.
- Fruit is edible, eaten out of hand; used in ice cream, pies, and cakes.
- In Brazil, chefs use it for cooking. Also used for making wine.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Leaves used as remedy for rheumatism and treatment of tumors.
- Insecticidal: Seeds yield insecticidal compounds with potential for controlling pests of stored cereals grains. (see study below) (2)
- Crafts: Seeds used for making necklaces and bracelets.
- Wood: Yellowish, medium-textured, hard and strong. Suitable for boat construction.
• Insecticidal / Leaves: Study of leaf extracts yielded a new oleanane type triterpene characterized as 3α, 24-diacetoxy-12-oleanene (1) together with nine known compounds. The compounds showed weak to moderate insecticidal activities against stored maize insect pests Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus. (2) Methanol extract of leaves isolated three flavonoids. The compounds showed promising insecticidal activities against Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus, insect pests of stored maize. (see constituents above) (4)
• Insecticidal / Larvicidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxic effect of A. mucosa extract on development stages of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a highly destructive pest that requires successive application of insecticides for control. The extract showed toxic effect on caterpillars at low concentrations, in both ingestion and contact modes of action. The extract interfered in embryogenesis and oviposition behavior. (3)
• Antileishmanial / In Vivo: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease endemic to large areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Study evaluated the antileishmanial activity of A. mucosa extracts on male BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. Treated groups showed significantly reduced footpad swelling, similar to groups treated with Pentamidine® and Glucantime®. Results suggest promising sources of novel antileishmanial compounds. (5)
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of A. mucosa extracts against 20 strains of clinical relevance. Extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. (6)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus / Seeds: Study evaluated the larvicidal effect and mechanisms of action of ethanolic seed extract and main constituents of Annona mucosa against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Analysis isolated acetogenins rolliniastatin 1 and rollinicin. Ethanolic extract and rolliniastatin 1 were more active against Ae. albopictus with LC50s of 0.55 and 0.20 µg/ml, respectively. Rollinicin was more active against Ae. aegypti (LC50 0.78 µg/mL). EEAM and acetogenins rolliniastatin 1 and rollinicin did not exhibit toxicity against zebrafish. Results demonstrated potential of seeds and acetogenins as green larvicidal agents for control of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. (7)
• Antiplatelet Activity / Aporphine Alkaloids / Stems: Bioassay-directed fractionation of stems of Rollinia mucosa isolated new N-methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids, romucosine A (1), romucosine B (2), romucosine C (3), and romucosine D (4), along with known alkaloid, N-methoxycarbonyl-nornuciferine (5). Alkaloids 1 and 4 exhibited significant inhibition of collagen, arachidonic acid, and platelet activating factor-induced platelet aggregation, and alkaloid 3 showed inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation. (8)
• Anxiolytic / Sedative / Leaves: Study evaluated the possible CNS effects of hexane extract of leaves from Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) At doses from 1.62 to 6.25 mg/kg, the extract induced anxiolytic-like actions similar to diazepam in the avoidance exploratory behavior paradigm. It also enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis time and caused motor coordination impairment at high doses. Single administration of extract reduced BDZ (benzodiazepine) receptor binding in hippocampus (29%), amydala (26%), and temporal cortex (38%) of mice. Results showed central nervous system depressant effects probably through interaction with GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. (9)
• Antileishmanial / Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the antileishmanial activity of extracts leaves and oxoaporphine alkaloid liriodenine against promastigote forms of three Leishmania species and against intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against peritoneal macrophages of mice. The dichloromethane extract of leaves was most active against Leishmania spp. with IC50s lower than 30 µg/mL. Liriodenine was most cytotoxic against Leishmania spp. (SI 5.93 to 1.54). All samples were active against intracellular amastigote forms. Study of dichloromethane extract of leaves isolated oxoaporphine alkaloids atherospermidine and liriodenine. (13)