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Family Phyllantaceae
Binayuyo
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.
BLACK CURRANT TREE
Fang ye mu yue cha

Scientific names Common names
Antidesma frutescens Jack Arosep (Ilk.)
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. Binayuyo (Tag.)
Antidesma ghaesembilla var. genuinum Müll.Arg. Binayuyu (Tag.)
Antidesma ghaesembilla var. paniculatum (Blume) Müll.Arg. Bananyo (Tagb.)
Antidesma ghaesembilla var. vestitum (C.Presl) Müll.Arg. Bignay-pugo (Tag.)
Antidesma paniculatum Blume Bignay-yoyo (Tagb.)
Antidesma pubescens Roxb. Bugnai (Tagb.)
Antidesma rhamnoides Brongn. ex Tul. Tubo-tubo (Bik.)
Antidesma schultzii Benth. Kakapal (Bis.)
Antidesma spicatum Blanco Black currant tree (Engl.)
Antidesma vestitum C.Presl  
Cansjera grossularioides  Blanco  
Cansjera rheedei Blanco  
Tsjeru-caniram grossularioides Blanco  
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AUSTRALIAN: May-kamw (Aaborigines).
BANGLADESH: Khudijam.
CAMBODIAN: Tarm eu greng, Dangkiep k'daam.
CHINESE: Fang ye wu yue cha.
FRENCH: Antidesma a fruits noirs.
GERMAN: Antidesmablatter.
HINDI: Januprulisaru, Umtao.
INDIA: Matha saga.
JAPANESE: Anchidesuma guhaesenbira.
KHMER: Dang kiep kdam.
LAOTIAN: Mau noi.
MALAY: Ande-ande, Binayuyo, Cuncak, Guchek, Guncak, Gunchin, Kenjam, Kewalot, Kunchir, Ondeh ondeh, Onjam, Sepat, Sigoreh, Tandurupis, Tendrupis, Wuni sepet. 
MYANMAR: Byaitsen, Pyizin.
RUSSIAN: Antidesma.
THAI: Hymaasoi, Maak mao, Mamao, Mamao kaao bao, Mang mao, Mao kaiplaa, Mao paa, Mao soi.
VITENAMESE: Chòi mòi, Chóp mòi, Chua mòi, Chùm mòi, Cóc Mạc mạu.

Botany
- Binayuyo is a small deciduous tree growing to a height of 16 meters. Bark is light grey. Leaves are simple, alternate, shortly petioled, broadly elliptic or orbicular obovate, 6 to 11 centimeters long; margins entire and pubescent; base rounded, rarely obtuse; apex rounded, sometimes mucronate. Male flowers are yellowish green, grouped into much branched spikes. Sepals usually 5, with 4 to 5, 2 to 2.5 millimeters long stamens with filaments free. Female flowers are many, grouped in branched racemes with very short pedicels. Drupes are small, about 4.5 millimeters in diameter, dark purple when ripe and agreeably acid.

A tree up to 20 m tall; young twigs pubescent. Stipules needlelike, 3-6 by 0.5-1 mm, pubescent, caducous; petiole 4-10 mm, pubescent; leaf blade oblong, more rarely ovate or obovate, 3-7 by 3-5 cm, papery to thinly leathery, pubescent to glabrous especially adaxially, often only major veins and margin pubescent, dull or shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, drying olive green to reddish green, base rounded to cordate, rarely obtuse, apex rounded, more rarely obtuse or acute, sometimes mucronate or retuse; domatia sometimes present; midvein flat adaxially, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, axes reddish pubescent, males 4-8 cm, 1-20 branched, females 2-3 10-20 branched; fruiting 4-7 cm. Male flowers sessile; sepals  4 or 5, free, 0.5-1 mm, deltoid to oblong, pubescent outside, glabrous inside, apex acute to obtuse; disk consisting of 4-7 free alternistaminal obconical lobes, pubescent; stamens 4 or 5, 2-2.5 mm; rudimentary ovary obconical. Female including fruiting pedicels 0-1 mm; sepals as in male; disk glabrous to pubescent especially at margin; ovary pubescent; stigmas  2 or 3. Drupes ellipsoid, laterally compressed, 3-4 by 2.5-3 mm, sparsely pubescent; style terminal to more rarely subterminal. (efloras.org/ provided by EOL) (11)

Distribution
- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(1)
- Primarily in wet tropical biomes. (1)

Constituents
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves yielded phenols, tannins, glycosides, saponins, reducing sugar, flavones, xanthoproteins, and coumarins. (3)
- Leaves showed physical constants of total ash, 8%; moisture, 69%; dry weight, 31%; stomatal index 32, and vein islet number 80. (3)
- Study of dichloromethane extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla isolated ß-friedelinol (1), lupeol (2), squalene (3), polyprenol (4), ß-sitosterol (5), long-chain hydrocarbons (6) and chlorophyll-a (7) from leaves, and ß-sitosterol (5), and triacylglycerols (8) from the fruit. (12
- Study of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of A. ghaesembilla bark isolated ten compounds: and two new aristolic acid derivatives, 10-amino-5,7-dimethoxy-aristolic acid II (= 6-amino-9,11-dimethoxyphenanthro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-aristolochic acid II (= 9,11-dimethoxy-6-nitrophenantro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (2), along with sitostenone (3), daucosterol (4), chavibetol (5), asperphenamate (6), protocatechuic acid (7), vanillic acid-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8), 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-methyl-phloroglucinol (9), and aristolic acid II-8-O-β-D-glucoside (10). (see study below) (14
-  In a  study to evaluate crude extracts of A. ghaesembilla for estrogenic effects, three compounds, a novel aristolochic acid derivative, 6ß-hydroxy-stigmast-4-en-3-one, and asperphenamate were isolated for the DCM extract.
(No significant estrogenic effects were detected). (14
- Study of  Antidesma ghaesembillia leaves isolated four flavone glycosides, namely: vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, and homoorientin. (18
- Nutrient analysis of fruit yielded moisture content of 79.1%, protein 1.3%,  carbohydrate 7.03%, total sugar 0.78%, iron 5.60 mg/100g, manganese 17.00 mg/100g, copper 15.00 mg/100g and calcium 3.30 mg/100g.
(19
- Study of methanol extract of leaves isolated five phenolic glycosides, namely: vanillyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and sinapyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). (20

Properties
Studies have suggested antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic, sedative , cytotoxic, antithrombotic, antibacterial properties.

Aristolochic acid toxicity concerns
- Studies of  dichlormethane and methanol extract of bark reports on the presence of aristolochic derivatives and raised concerns on its potential toxicity, reports on aristolochic acid nephropathy, and cautions on the traditional uses of the plant. (see study below) (14)
- Aristolochic acids are a family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic phytochemicals commonly found in the flowering plant of family Aristolochiaceae. Aristolochic acid I is the most abundant one. (15)

Parts used
Leaves, stems, fruit.

Uses

Edibility
- Leaves and fruits are edible.
- Fully ripe fruit can be eaten raw, cooked, or made into jams and jellies. (9)
- Shoots have a sour flavor; used as vegetable and spice.
- In India, leaves used as vegetable in rural areas of Western Ghats. In Odisha, fruits used as ingredient in meat and fish curry preparations.
Folkloric
- In India, leaves applied as paste for headaches.
- Leaves used for fever. 
- In Thailand, leaf decoction used for blood nourishment. In Vietnam, leaves and bark used for cough and rheumatism. In China, stems used for menstrual disorders. In Bangladesh, leaves used to enhance breast milk production. In Thailand, flowers used for herpes simplex. In Cambodia, used for stomachaches.  (8)
- Fruit is purgative; stems are emmenagogue Leaves used as poultice for headaches, scurf, fevers, and abdominal swellings.
- Stems used to stimulate menstrual flow.
- In Odisha, India, fruits used for blood nourishment, breast milk production, and headache.  (19)
- In Cambodia, an herbal mixture of Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder, Nelummbo nucifera petals, and Antidesma ghaesembilla bark used for treatment of diabetes. (21)
Others
- Wood: Used for construction. fences, industrial and domestic woodware, tool handles.

Studies
• Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic
Study investigated the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of a crude methanolic extract of A. ghaesembillla. Results showed significant hypoglycemic potential with dose dependent decrease in blood glucose. The crude extract also showed moderate to strong antioxidant potential attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds and its ability to scavenge free radicals. (4)
• Acute toxicity testing: Acute toxicity testing of crude methanolic extract performed on Sprague-Dawley rats showed no mortality and nontoxicity up to 5000 mg/kg. (4

• Anxiolytic / Sedative / Fruits: Study evaluated the anxiolytic and sedative activities of methanol and chloroform extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla fruits using rodent behavioral models. Results showed the fruit extracts to possess significant neuropharmacological activity with strong sedative and anxiolytic potential.  (5)
Volmifoliol / Megastigmane / Leaves: Study isolated vomifoliol, a megastigmane derivative, from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla. Naturally occurring megastigmane derivatives have been previously found to have antiproliferative, anticancer, and cytotoxic effects.  (6)
• 
Antioxidant / Fruits: Study investigated methanolic extracts from ten fruits for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. Mao khipia (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.) and mao luang (Antedesma bunius) showed highest radical scavenging activity correlating with total phenolic and anthocyanin contents in the berry extracts and scavenging activity. (7)
Brine Shrimp Lethality: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla to assess for potential pharmacologic activities by Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). A 50-50 ethanol extract showed potential bioactive components with the most toxic concentration at less than 10 ppm toxic in both acute and chronic LC50 values. (9)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of extract of leaves. The leaves showed higher antioxidant activity when compared to standards with higher catalase (0.220 mg) and polyphenolic content (653.46 ± 1.09 mg/100g). (1
0
Antithrombotic / Cytotoxic / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of leaves extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla showed significant antithrombotic activity (63.45%) compared to standard streptokinase (81.32%). The extract showed inhibitory activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomoas aeruginosa. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed LC50 of 432.13 µg/ml compared to Vincristine sulfate LC50 0.74µg/ml. (1
3
Aristolochic Acid Derivatives / Toxicity Concerns / Bark:  Study of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of A. ghaesembilla bark isolated ten compounds: and two new aristolic acid derivatives, 10-amino-5,7-dimethoxy-aristolic acid II (= 6-amino-9,11-dimethoxyphenanthro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-aristolochic acid II (= 9,11-dimethoxy-6-nitrophenantro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (2), and aristolic acid II-8-O-β-D-glucoside (10). The study raised concerns on exposure of humans to aristolochic compounds, which has been associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy, and cautions on the traditional usage of the plant. (see constituents above) (14
Herbal Fruit Drink Formulation:  Study evaluated the DPPH-scavenging activities of fruit extracts and formulation of a rapidly dissolving powder for a fruit drink. Decoction and drying by evaporating the extract of ripe fruits yielded an extract with high free radical scavenging activity, high amounts of total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content. The extract was developed into a readily dissolving drink powder that contained 3.08 g%C-3 in 1 sachet (14g) and exhibited free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 0.004 g of vitamin C. The extract has potential as a herbal drink. (16
Anti-Inflammatory / Alkaloids / Leaves:  Chromatographic study of leaves isolated two new alkaloids, antidesoic acid A (1) and B (2), along with 14 known compounds (3-16). All isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in BV2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Bisflavone 8 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production in BV2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50s of 5.4 and 8.0 µM, respectively. Compounds 1-3, 7, 10, 12, 14, and 16 showed moderate inhibitory activities with IC50s ranging from 11.7 to 77.4 µM. (
22

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated September 2022 / November 2017
January 2015

PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Antidesma ghaesembilla - Black currant Tree / Vinayaraj / CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Common
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File: Antidesma ghaesembilla Blanco1.25-original.png / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. / KEW: Plants of the World OnlinE
(2)
Sorting Antidesma names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(3)
Pharmacognostical studies on leaf of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn, A promising wild edible plant / Poonam C. Patil, Varsha D. Jadhav(Rathod)* and Shivprasad D. Mahadkar / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2013, 4(3): pp 136-142
(4)
Antioxidant Activity And Hypoglycemic Potential Of Antidesma Ghaesembilla Gaertn (Phyllantaceae) / Maryglen F. Gargantiel, Mafel C. Ysrael / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, March 2014; 3(3) / ISSN: 2277-8616
(5)
Pharmacological Evaluation of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn Fruits for Central Nervous System Depressant Activity / Md. Razibul HABIB, Md. Mominur RAHMAN, Md. Obayed RAIHAN, Abeer NATH, Md. Alamgir HOSSAIN, Mohammed Aktar SAYEED, Md Sohel RANA & Mohammad A. RASHID* / 2012 Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 11(2): pp 188-195 / ISSN: 0717-07917
(6)
Isolation of Vomifoliol: A Megastigmane from Leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla / S. MARIA, F. ISLAM,*, N. QAIS and C.M. HASAN / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2013; 25(6): pp 3533-3534 /
DOI: 10.14233/ajchem.2013.13872
(7)
Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity / Supachai Samappitoa & Luchai Butkhup* / International Journal of Fruit Science, Volume 10, Issue 3, 2010 / DOI:10.1080/15538362.2010.510421
(8)
Antidesma ghaesembilla / Vernacular names, botany, traditional uses / GlobinMed 
(9)
Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay of the Ethanolic Extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn / Reizl P. Jose, Kay P. Ramos, Maricel L.Gelsano, Olga M. Nuñeza*, Mylene M. Uy / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., August 2015; 4(9):  pp 88-92
(10)
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ASSESMENT OFMETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANTIDESMA GHAESEMBILLA GAERTN. LEAVES. / Varsha Jadhav and Poonam Patil
(11)
Antidesma ghaesembilla / Atlas of Living Australia
(12)
Chemical Constituents of Leaves and Fruits of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. / Rhanney L Gonzales, Chien-Chang Sien, Consolacion Y Ragasa / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2017; 29(10): pp 2333-2334 / DOI: 10.14233/ajchem.2017.20689
(13)
Antithrombotic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaerth / Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Abul Hasanat / International Journal of Pharmacy, 2016; 6(1): pp 45-52 / ISSN: 2249-1848
(14)
Aristolic Acid Derivatives from the Bark of Antidesma ghaesembilla
/ Sibulle Schäfer, Stefan Schwaiger, Hermann Stuppner / Planta Med, 2017; 83(12/13): pp 1097-1102 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-110141
(15)
Aristolochic acid / Wikipedia
(16)
Formulation and Quality Control of Readily Dissolving Drink Powder from Antidesma ghaesembilla Fruits / Pongtip  Sithisarn, Wandee Gritsanapan, Somboon Jateleela / CMU J Nat Sci, 2015; 14(1) /
DOI: 10.12982/CMUJNS.2015.0073
(17)
Rationalization of the traditional use of Antidesma ghaesembilla to treat hormone related disorders
/ S Schäfer, S Broschk, J Wober et al / Planta Med, 2015; 81 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1565349
(18)
Flavonoid glycosides from Antidesma ghaesembilla / La Canh Viet Cuong, Do Thi Trang, Phan Van Kiem et al / Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 2015; 53(2E( / DOI: 10.15625/6654
(19)
Analysis of some nutritional properties in eight wild edible fruits of Odisha, India / Jyotimayee Nayak, Uday Chand Basak / Int J Curr Sci, 2015; 14: pp 55-62 / ISSN: 2250-1770
(20)
Phenolic glycosides from Antidesma ghaesembilla
/ Le Canh Viet Cuong, Do Thi Trang, Phan Van Kiem et al / Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 2016; 54(2) / DOI: 10.15625/0866-7144.2016-00254
(21)
The antidiabetic activity of Vernonia amygdalina Delile native to Cambodia
/ Marina Hul, Kimleng Bov, Pheng Bun, Samell Keo / Asian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 4(1): pp 5-7 / eISSN: 0128-1119
(22)
New alkaloids and anti-inflammatory constituents from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla
/ Phan Van Kiem, Le Canh Viet Cuong, Seung Hyun Kim et al / Natural Product Communications, 2017; 12(1): pp 11-14 / DOI: 10.1177/1934578x1701200104

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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