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Family Apocynaceae
Baraibai
Cerbera manghas Linn.
SEA MANGO

Hai mang guo

Scientific names Common names
Cerbera manghas Linn. Arbon (Tagb.)
Cerbera odollam Gaertn. Baraibai (Tag.)
Cerbera lactaria Ham. Batano (Ilk.)
Elcana seminuda Blanco Buta-buta (Tag.)
Cerbera venenifera (Poir.) Steud. Buto-buto (C. Bis.)
Tanghinia venenifera Poir. Dita (Sul.)
  Duñgas (Mag.)
  Kaliptan (Ilg.)
  Lipata (Tagb.)
  Lipatag (P. Bis.)
  Magkanai (Bik.)
  Maraibai (Tag.)
  Panabulon (P. Bis.)
  Tabau-tabau (Tag.)
  Toktok-kalau (Tag.)
  Dog bane (Engl.)
  Sea mango (Engl.)
  Madagascar ordeal bean (Engl.)
  Pink-eyed cerbera (Engl.)
Quisumbing's compilation lists C. manghas and C. odollam as synonyms, while some list them as separate species.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hai mang guo.
KANNADA: Chande, Monde.
MALAYALAM: Utalam, Chattankaya.
MARATHI: Sukanu.
TAMIL: Kodalma, Kattarali, Kottuma, Caat aralie.

Botany
Baraibai is a shrub, although it may sometimes grow in to a small tree, up to 6 meters high. Leaves are shiny, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 13 to 25 centimeters long, narrowed and pointed at both ends, furnished with slender nerves. Flowers are white, fragrant, about 5 centimeters across, on terminal inflorescences. Calyx tube is short, with spreading, pale-green lanceolate lobes, about 2 centimeters long. Corolla tube is slender, greenish-white, enlarged above, about 4 centimeters long; the five-lobed limb white with a purple center, spreading, about 5 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is a drupe, smooth, ellipsoid or ovoid, 5 to 8 centimeters long, flattened on one side, with a fibrous endocarp, and containing one oily seed.

Distribution
- Along the seashore throughout the Philippines.
- Also reported in tropical Asia through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Seeds yield a glucoside known as cerebrin.
- A bitter principle, odollin, has been isolated.
- Fixed oil content is 57.8%, olein 62%, palmitin and stearin, 38%.

- Cardenolide monoglycosides: Study yielded six minor monosides (digitoxigenibn, acofriosides, and tanghinigenin) and major monosides 17b- and 17a-neriifolin and 17b- and 17a-deacetyhanghinin.
- Study of the bark yielded two new compounds: 1,3-bis(m-carboxylphenyl)-propan-2-one and 2-(m-carboxylphenyl)-3-(m-carboxylbenzyl)succinic acid.
- Study of ethanol extract of roots and stems yielded 20 compounds and identified 8: two cardiac glycosides, (-)-17β-neriifolin, and 17β-Digitoxigenin-β-D-glucosyl-(1→4)-α-L-thevetoside; two iridoids, Cerbinal, Coniferaldehyde; one organic acid, Vanillic acid; and two lignans, (-)-olivil and (+)-Cycloolivil; and 8-Hydroxypinoresinol.
- Study of ethanol extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, and glycosides. (see study below) (16)
- Study of air-dried leaves yielded glucos-3-ulosyl-thevetosides of 17-digitoxigenin and 17a-tanghinigenin; rom fresh leaves, oleagenin glucosyl- thevetoside and digitoxigenin gentiotriosyl-thevetoside were isolated besides known glycosides, glucosyl-thevetosides of digitoxigenin and tanghinigenin. (17)
- Leaves yielded seven triterpenoids: (1) (23Z)-9, 19-cycloart-25-ene-3β,24-diol (2), euphorbol (3), ursolic acid (4), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (5), 3-O-acetyl ursolic acid (6), and α-amyrin (7). (18)
- Study of stems and roots yielded cardiac glycosides, (-)-17β-neriifolin (1), and 17β-Digitoxigenin-β-D-glucosyl-(1→4)-α-L-thevetoside (2), two iridoids, Cerbinal (3), Coniferaldehyde (4), one organic Acid, Vanillic acid (5), and two lignans, (-)-olivil (6) and (+)-Cycloolivil (7), 8-Hydroxypinoresinol (8). (see study below) (20)

Properties
- Seed are reported to be toxic.
- Emetic and purgative.
- Studies have shown antitumor, antioxidant, antifungal properties.


Parts used
Leaves, latex

Uses

Folkloric
- Milky sap and leaves are emetic and purgative.
- Bark is purgative.
- Fruit combined with Datura used for hydrophobia.
- Red fruit, when fresh, rubbed on legs for rheumatism.
- Latex is rubifacient on the skin.
- Fruit kernel used as abortifacient.
- Oil rubbed on skin to cure itches.
- In Java, along with heating oils, rubbed on skin as rubifacient to cure colds.
- In Burma, oil applied to hair as an insecticide.
Others
- Wood: Soft wood produces a fine charcoal, which the Siamese used in 1778 for gunpowder.
- Illuminant: In Penang, oil of seeds used as an illuminant.
- Poison: In Benua, sap is mixed with "ipoh" to produce a poison. In the Philippines, used as fish poison in small streams.

Toxicity
Seeds are toxic.
Green fruit employed to kill dogs.
Latex causes blindness.
Fruit kernel is an irritant poison, which may cause vomiting, purging, collapse and death.
Plant with its cardiac glycoside content has cause of suicidal or homicidal deaths.
Suicide Reports: Sri Lankan study reports 7 deaths attributed to C. manghas self-poisoning, with typical features of cardenolide poisoning – cardiac dysrhythmias and hyperkalemia.


Studies
Quisumbing's compilation lists C. manghas and C. odollam as synonyms, while some list them as separate species. Studies below are for both.
Cardenolide Monoglycosides / Leaves:
Study of air-dried leaves of F odollam and C. manghas yielded glucos-3-ulosyl-thevetosides of 17a-digitoxigenin and 17a-tanghinigenin. Fresh leaves yielded oleagenin glucosyl- thevetoside and digitoxigenin gentiotriosyl-thevetoside. (1)

Cytotoxicity: In a Japanese study of the methanol extracts 39 seashore plants examined for cytotoxic activity against human leukaemia cells (K562 cells), five extracts, including C manghas, greatly inhibited the growth of K562 cells. The effect was attributed to DPT(deoxypodophyllotoxin) isolated from the fresh leaves of H. nymphaeaefolia. (4)
Tanghinigenin / HL-60 Cell Apoptosis: Study isolated tanghinigenin, a cardiac glycoside, from the seeds of Cerbera manghas. Tanghinigenin reduced the viability of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and efficiently induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. (6)
Phenylpropionic Acid / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated two new phenylpropionic acid derivatives, cerberic acids A and B, from the bark of C manghas. Compound one exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against HepG2, MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines. (7)
Cytotoxicity / Ceribinal / Neriifolin: Bark, wood and leaf extracts of C manghas displayed potent cytotoxicity to A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line assay. Study isolated cerbinal, a known iridoid, a major component of bark and wood extracts, and the most cytotoxic in the fractionation process. Neriifolin, a minor component of the leaf extract, as a 100 times more active than cerbinal in the A2780 cytotoxicity assay. (8)
Antioxidant / Antitumor: Twenty-eight compounds were isolated from a petroleum ether extract of roots. Three glycosides exhibited strong inhibitory activity against chronic myelogenous leukemia, human gastric carcinoma, and human hepatoma cell lines. An ethanol and methanol extract of roots showed antioxidant activity. Three lignans showed strong antioxidant activity.
Antioxidant / Phytochemical Screening: Study isolated three compounds, one 14β (H) steroid (triticusterol) and two benzoic acid derivatives, from the carbon tetrachloride soluble fractions of a methanol extract of stem bark of Cerbera odollam. Various extracts and fractions of the bark showed moderate potent antioxidant activity, strongest with the chloroform soluble fraction. (10)
Anticancer: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of the leaf of C. odollam against two breast cancer cell lines against two breast cancer cell lines (T47D and MCF7), two ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and CaOV3) and a normal (Vero) cell line. Bioassay guided isolated yielded 17βH-neriifolin, which showed potent anticancer activity against MCF7, T47D, SKOV3, CaOV3 and Vero cell lines. (11)
Suicide Tree / Cerbera odollam: Seeds are known to be extremely toxic. The tree is reported to be responsible for 50% of plant poisoning cases and 10% of the total poisoning cases in Kerala, India, used for both suicide and homicide. (12)
CNS Toxicity and Effects of C. odollam Leaf Extract: Study evaluated the immediate and delayed toxicity of C. odollam leaf extract in mice. A doses less than maximal dose, the leaf extract significantly decreased mice spontaneous motor activity, increased reaction time to thermal stimulus, reduced duration of pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures and mortality, and potentiated sodium pentobarbital-generated hypnotic effects. (13)
Antifungal: Study of extracts of leaves of C. manghas showed antifungal activity. The antifungal activity was best against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense. (14)
Antioxidant / Analgesic: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing in white albino mice. Extract also showed antioxidant property in a free radical scavenging assay. (see constituents above) (16)
Self Poisoning / Seeds or Fruits: Study reports self poisoning as significantly common among young unmarried males in the Batticaloa district of Easter Province of Sri Lanka. Toxicity risk did not correlate with the number of seeds. Symptoms are non specific. AV conduction defects are common. Multiple activated charcoals alone were safe and adequate in most cases. Severity of toxicity correlated with mortality. (19)
Antioxidant / Anti-Tumor / Cytotoxicity: Extracts showed strong cytotoxicities. Among the isolated compounds, three cardiac glycosides exhibited strong inhibitory activity towards chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562), human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901) and human hepatoma (SMMC)cell lines. Root extracts showed better antioxidant activity than the stems. Three lignans showed good antioxidant activity. (see constituents above) (20)
2′-epi-2′-O-Acetylthevetin B / Apoptosis / Human Hepatocellular Ca: 2′-epi-2′-O-Acetylthevetin B (GHSC-74), a cardiac glycoside was isolated from the seeds of C. manghas, inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells by inducing S and G2 phase arrest of cell cycle and triggering apoptosis via mitochondrial disruption including caspase-dependent and independent pathways, and ROS generation. (21)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update October 2014

IMAGE SOURCS: Illustration / Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 1 / Philippine Mangrove Swamps / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Plate XIV / Cerebra manghas (Baraibai) / 1920 (2) Public Domain / Koeh-175.jpg / Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897 / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCS: / Koeh-175.jpg / Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCS: PHOTO / Flowers /Datei:Cerbera manghas flower.jpg / WngkLEE / Creative Commons-Lizenz Namensnennung-Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported lizenziert. / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Cardenolide Monoglycosides from the Leaves of Cerbera odollam and Cerbera manghas(Cerbera. III)(Organic,Chemical) / Yamauchi Tatsuo, Abe Fumiko and Wan Alfred / Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 35(7), 2744-2749, 1987-07-2
(2)
Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies / Michael Eddleston and Hans Persson / J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003; 41(3): 309–315.
(3)
Fatal injury in eastern Sri Lanka, with special reference to cardenolide self-poisoning with Cerbera manghas fruits / Eddleston M, Haggalla S / Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Sep;46(8):745-8.
(4)
Flow cytometric estimation on cytotoxic activity of leaf extracts from seashore plants / T Masuda, Y Oyama et al / Phytother Res (2002) 16: 353-8.
(5)
Chemical constituents from the bark of Cerbera manghas / Zhang XP, Liu MS et al / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2009;11(1):75-8.
(6)
Taxon: Cerbera manghas L / Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) / USDA
(6)
Tanghinigenin from seeds of Cerbera manghas L. induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells / Guo-Fei Wang, Yue-Wei Guo et al /
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume 30, Issue 1, July 2010, Pages 31-36 / doi:10.1016/j.etap.2010.03.012
(7)
Phenylpropionic acid derivates from the bark of Cerbera manghas
/ Xiao Po Zhang, Ming Sheng Liu et al /

Fitoterapia, Volume 81, Issue 7, October 2010, Pages 852-854 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.05.010
(8)
CERBINAL, A KNOWN IRIDOID, AND NERIIFOLIN, A KNOWN CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE, ISOLATED FROM CERBERA MANGHAS (APOCYNACEAE) FROM MADAGASCAR / Dissertation / ISOLATION AND STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION OF CYTOTOXIC NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM THE RAINFORESTS OF MADAGASCAR AND SURINAME / Brent Jason Yoder /
(9)
Study on the Chemical Constitutents of Cerbera Manghas / Thesis / Medical Research
(10)
Phytochemical screening and Antioxidant studies of Cerbera odollam Gaertn / C. M. Hasan, M. R. Kuddus, F. Rumi, M. M. Masud / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 01/2011; 2(1):413.
(11)
Potential anticancer compound from Cerbera odollam / MM Siti Syarifah *, MY nurhanan1, J Muhd Haffiz, aA Mohd Ilham, K Getha, O Asiah, I Norhayati, H lili Sahira & S Anee Suryani / Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23(1): 89–96 (2011)
(12)
Cerbera odollam: a 'suicide tree' and cause of death in the state of Kerala, India / Yvan Gaillard, Fabien Bevalot, Ananthasankaran Krishnamoorthy / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 95, Issues 2–3, December 2004, Pages 123–126
(13)
Toxicity and effects on the central nervous system of a Cerbera odollam leaf extract / Trân Thi Minh Hiên, Ch. Navarro-Delmasure, Trân Vy / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 34, Issues 2–3, September 1991, Pages 201–206
(14)
Studies on Antifungal Activity of Cerbera Manghas Leaves Extraction / ZHUANG Li-ke, YANG Ye, ZHU Wen / Environment and Plant Protection College,Hainan University,Hainan Danzhou 571737,China
(15)
Sea mango / Common names / Flowers of India
(16)
Assessment of Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Cerebra manghas Leaves / Hossain Md. Anwar, Islam Md. Amirul, Sarker Suman, Rahman Mushfique, Siraj Md. Afjalus / Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013, 4(5)
(17)
Studies on Cerbera. IV.1 Polar Cardenolide Glycosides from the Leaves of Cerbera odollam and Cerbera manghas / TATSUO YAMAUCHI, FUMIKO ABE, and ALFRED S. C. WAN / Chem Pharm Bull, 35(12)4813-4818(1987)
(18)
Triterpenoids from the leaves of Cerbera manghas / ZHANG Xiao-po; PEI Yue-hu; LIU Ming-sheng; KANG Sheng-li; ZHANG Jun-qing / Natural Product Research & Development;Jun2011, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p443
(19)
RETROSPECTIVE DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON CEREBERA MANGHAS POISONING IN EASTERN PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA: AN ANALYSIS OF ADMISSIONS AND OUTCOME IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, BATTICALOA / S Pirasath, KT Sundaresan, C Gnanathasan Ariaranee / Intensive Care Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
(20)
Study on the Chemical Constitutents of Cerbera Manghas / Medical Research
(21)
2′-epi-2′-O-Acetylthevetin B (GHSC-74), Cell cycle arrest, Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Caspase, Apoptosis / Bo Feng, Cai-Guo Huang, Yue-Wei Guo, Liang Li / Chemico-Biological Interactions , 2010 , 183 , 1 , 142-153

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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