- Tradescantia is named after John Tradescant senior, gardener to Charles I. He collected the first tradescantia from Virginia in the USA. Spathacea refers to the spatula-like leaves. Its common names are Moses-in-the-cradle, Oyster Plant and Boat Lily.
Moses in a Cradle: The small white
three-petaled flowers (Moses) arise from within the boat-shaped purple
bracts (the cradle) nestled between the leaf axils.
Bangka-bangkaan is a stout perennial herbaceous, somewhat fleshy
plant, 0.5 meters in height or less, the stem thick and unbranched. Leaves are lanceolate, acuminate, 40 to 60 centimeters long, 4 to 6 centimeters
wide, fleshy, the upper surface dark green, the lower purple. Flowers are numerous in each inflorescence, fascicled, white,
about 1 centimeter in diameter. Inflorescence, axillary, short, peduncled, the
flowers surrounded by 2 large, imbricate, laterally compressed, distichous,
3 to 4 centimeters long purplish bracts.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Grown for bedding, rock gardens and ground cover.
• Phytochemical studies yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids,
saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, tannin and phenolic compounds
• Leaf analysis yielded the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, and tannins. (19)
• Decongestant, expectorant,
blood refrigerant, antidysenteric.
• Reported anti-inflammatory, anticancer, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifertility properties.
• Studies have suggest antioxidant, antibacterial, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, antitumor properties.
Collect the whole year round. Sun-dry.
• Leaves and flowers reportedly used in making tea. (17) (18)
• Decoction and infusion of leaves recognized as functional food particularly in South America.
• Decoction of dried or fresh leaves used for cough, colds, hemoptysis, whooping cough, nose bleed.
• Bacillary dysentery, blood in the stool.
• Used for lymphatic tuberculosis.
• Used by Ayta communities of Porac, Pampanga for inflammation, sprains, and fractures. (26)
• In Singapore,
sold in markets as both ornamental and medicinal: Boiled in water, it
is believed to have cooling properties.
• In Thai medicine, used for fever, cough and bronchitis.
• In Cuba, frictions and cataplasms used to treat wounds.
In the Caribbean, poultice of leaves used for asthma.
• In Puerto Rico, decoction of leaves used in the treatment of psoriasis. (15)
• In Mexican traditional medicine, leaves used for the treatment of "nervios." (20) Used for the treatment of superficial mycoses.
The plant sap is considered poisonous.
Contact may cause stinging and itching of the skin and eyes. Ingestion
may cause irritation of the lips, mouth, throat and abdominal pain.
• Anti-tumor / Chemoprevention: Aqueous crude extract of Rhoeo
discolor decreases the formation of liver preneoplastic foci in rats – In Mexico, Rhoeo discolor has been used to treat cancer. A study was
done to validate its antitumoral property. It showed a reduction of
preneoplastic lesions and justifies continuing further studies for its
chemoprevention potential. (1)
• Antigenotoxic, Antimutagenic and
ROS Scavenging Activities: Study evaluated an ethanolic crude extract from Rhoeo discolor for antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and ROS scavenging activities. Study
evaluated its antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities.
The extract was neither mutagenic nor genotoxic. On free radical scavenging test, its antioxidant activity was less than quercetin, similar to a-tocopherol, and more than ascorbic acid. showed dome radical
scavenging, less than a-tocopherol and more than ascorbic acid. (2)
• Antimutagenic Mechanism: Study of antimutagenic mechanisms showed the extract might be used to avoid DNA damage by alkylation, corrected alkylguanine transferase protein encoded with ogt gene. (5)
• Antimicrobial / Phytochemical
Constituents: Phytochemical studies yielded alkaloids,
flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, tannin
and phenolic compounds and oil. Study showed good inhibitory activity
with dose-dependent increase in effect. K pneumonia was found to be
most susceptible. (4)
• Stimulation of Human Lymphocyte Proliferative Response: Study evaluated the effects of various extracts of 8 Thai medicinal plants for in vitro stimulating human lymphocyte activity. All the extracts significantly stimulated human lymphocyte proliferative responses at varying concentrations. Results suggest potential for clinical use for modulating immune functions of the body. (9)
• Antimicrobial / Phenolic Rich Extracts: Study evaluated the in vitro activity of phenolic rich extracts against chosen microorganisms of human health importance viz., Listeria innocua, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. While P. aeruginosa was least affected by extract exposure, low doses of the extracts produced significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the rest of the microorganisms. (13)
• Anticancer / Hepatoprotective: Study showed the protective effects of Rhoeo discolor aqueous crude extract against rat liver cancer using the resistant-hepatocyte model. The aqueous crude extract reduced the number and area of preneoplastic lesions. Results suggest justification for pursuing studies on chemoprevention strategies as an option in the treatment of cancer. (14)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous leaf extracts of Rhoeo spathacea for antioxidant (DPPH, FRS, FRP, and FIC assays) and antibacterial activity. Infusions and decoctions were found to have comparable TPC and antioxidant activity with other herbal teas. Both decoction and infusion showed antibacterial activity against six species of Gram positive and four species of gram negative bacteria, notably MRSA and Neisseria gonorrhea. (16)
• Antiviral Activity / Cytopathic Inhibitory Effect on Vero Cells: In a study of twenty Malaysian medicinal plants for anti-Chikungunya virus activity, ethanol, methanol, and chloroforms leaf extracts of T. spathacea showed the strongest cytopathic inhibitory effect on Vero cells, with cell viabilities of 92.6%, 91.5% and 88.8%, respectively. The chloroform extract showed CC50 of 285.5±3.1 µg/ml and EC50 of 69.2±0.6 µg/ml. (19)
Anticancer: Paper reported on the anticancer properties of leaves of Tradescantia spathacea and over-expression of ß-catenin protein in lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cell lines), prostate cancer (PC-3) and hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2). Results showed rich anticancer activity against the three cell lines via suppression or inhibition of over-expression of ß-catenin protein. (21)
Antimycobacterial: Study evaluated five selected Indonesian endogenous medicinal plants (A. paniculata, A. muricata, C. asiatic, P. indica, and Rhoeo spathacea) against clinical isolate of multi-drug resistance (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rhoeo spathacea showed 100% inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain and 100 inhibition against MDR strain. Pluchea indica and Rhoeo spathacea showed good antimycobacterial activity against MDR strains and showed potential as complementary alternative therapy in treatment of emergent MDR strains of MTb. (22)
Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the viability of R. spathace leaf extracts as a beverage, in terms of antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Aqueous leaf extracts in forms of decoction and infusion were shown to have comparable TPC and antioxidant activity with other herbal teas. Both decoction and infusion exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of gram positive and four species of gram negative bacterial, notably MRSA and Neisseria gonorrhea. Both decoction and infusion of leaves have potential to be popularized into a common beverage. (23)
Phytoremediation Potential / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the use of R. discolor as a phytoremediation plant. Chrysopogon zizanioides, a phytoremediation plant, was used as positive control. Both plants were exposed to 144 h. to leachates from a sanitary landfill for urban waste. Elements identified in R. discolor exposed to leachates were quartz, CaCO3, and thiocyanate. In both species, exposure to leachates were associated with an increase in concentration of Cu, K, Mn, Ni, and S In R. discolor, the concentration of S increased 25 times. Results suggest R. discolor as potential as a phytoremediation plant. (24)
Invention / Use in Cosmetics and Pharmaceutics: Invention describes the use of Rhoeo discolor plant extracts in cosmetics and pharmaceutics, in particular, in dermatology. The aim is to improve the differentiation of keratocytes and/or to fight against the ill effects of free radicals and/or to improve the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans. The incorporation serves to improve skin hydration, softness and firmness, and fight against skin ageing effects. (25)