The name Arundina graminifolia derives from the Greek word arundo, referring to the reed-like stems, and from the Latin words gramineus and folius referring to the grass-like leaves.
Arundina graminifolia is a tall terrestrial plant up to 3 meters high.
Stems are erect, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters tall and up to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are borne in two ranks, linear-lanceolate and grass-like, 12 to 30 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide.
Simple terminal Inflorescence may be branched, 15 to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are purple red, pink to white, up to 10 centimeters across. Sepals and petals are similar, white,
overspread with pink, the lip is large, darker than the sepals and petals, veined magenta with a yellow to orange-yellow patch at the
base. Fruit is an elongated capsule filled with tiny seeds.
- Cultivated in gardens.
- Grows well in the Baguio area.
- Also occurs in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaya and Java.
• Study isolated five compounds: (2E)-, 2-propenoic
acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decosyl ester (I), p-hydroxybenzyl
alcohol (II), triacontanol (III) and p-hydroxybenzylethyl ether (IV),
• Phytochemical analysis yields benzyldihydrophenanthrene, arundinaol, stilbenoid
arundinan and phenanthrene constituents.
• Contains tannin, saponin and heptacosane.
• From the rhizome, a benzyledihydrophenanthrene.
• Study isolated a novel stilbenoid, arundinan (2-( p-hydroxybenzyl)-3-hydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl). (6)
• Study of tubers isolated 34 compounds: two were new, both stilbenoids (arundinan and arundinaol), and 22 compounds were isolated for the first time. (see study below) (11)
• Study of whole plant yielded a new flavonoid, Compound 1, 3(S),4(S)-3',4'-dihydroxyl-7,8,-methylenedioxylpterocarpan, together with ten known flavonoids: medicarpin (2), 5-hydroxy-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(3'',4'':6:7)-flavone (3), butein (4), sulfuretin (5), quercetin (6), quercetin-β-3-O- glycosides (7), kaempferol (8), kaempferol-β-3-O-glyco- sides (9), (+)-catechin (10), steppogenin-4'-O-β-D- glucoside (11). (see study below) (12)
• Study of whole plant isolated five new phenolic compounds, gramniphenols C-G (1-5) and eight known compounds (6-13). (see study below) (14)
• Study of rhizome isolated a novel benzyldihydrophenanthrene named arundinaol, elucidated as 7-hydroxy-1-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-2,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. (16)
• Study isolated six phenanthrenes: blestriarene A (1), shacidin (2), densiflorol B (3), ephemerantho-quinone (4),
coelonin (5), and lusianthridin (6). (see study below) (17)
• Study of aerial parts yielded two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1) and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2), together with a known lignin dimer (3) and seven known stilbenoids (4-10). (see study below) (18)
• Considered antibacterial, antitumor, antidotal, immune regulating.
• Studies have suggested anticancer, antioxidant, antidepressant, antiviral, anti-lipid peroxidation, antibacterial, anti-hemolytic, antifungal properties.
Rhizomes, roots, stem, leaves, juice.
• Flowers reportedly edible.
• No reported folkloric
medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In India,
scrapped bulbous stem applied on heels to treat cracks.
• Leaves, root and juice used for ear pain and rheumatism.
• In traditional Chinese medicine, used as antidote, diuretic, and demulcent.
• In Bangladesh, roots used for snakebite and intestinal biliary colic. Leaves, roots, and juice used for ear pain and rheumatism. Rhizome and leaf paste applied locally for rheumatic pains. (3)
• Flowers used to treat high blood pressure.
• Roots decoction used for diabetes, tumors, hepatitis.
• In Indonesia, boiled roots used as tonic for men, to strengthen them for work. (13)
• Roots and stems use for jaundice, beriberi edema, abdominal pain, snake bites, carbuncles and sores.
• Rhizomes used to treat body aches and bacterial infections.
A novel benzyldihydrophenanthrene
named aundinaol was isolated from the rhizome of AG. (4)
• Cytotoxicity against Five Cancer Cell Lines: Study isolated eight new C-4 alkylated deoxybenzoins, three new diphenylethylenes, and five known diphenylethylenes. Evaluated for cytotoxicity, compounds 4, 5, and 9-11 showed significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. (5)
• Diphenylethylenes / Anticancer: Study of Arundina graminifolia isolated two new dephenylethylenes, gramniphenols H and I (Compounds 1 and 2), together with six known diphenylethylenes. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against PC3 cells, while compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against NB4 and PC3 cells. (7)
• Bibenzyl Derivatives / Anti-Tumor Activity: Study isolated bibenzyl derivatives from the tuber of Arundina graminifolia. Compound 3 with bibenzyl ring opening exhibited stronger anti-tumor activity than compounds 1 and 2 with bibenzyl ring closing. (8)
• Antioxidant: Study investigated the scavenging effects of Arundina graminifolia on active oxygen species OH and O2 generated by Fenton reaction and riboflavin photosensitization. Results suggest AG showed significant scavenging and antioxidant activity. (9)
• Antitumor Stilbenoids and Antidepressant YL102: Study of tubers yielded isolated 34 compounds: two were new, both stilbenoids (arundinan and arundinaol), and 22 compounds were isolated for the first time. Pharmacologic evaluation showed the bibenzyls possessed remarkable anti-tumor activity in vitro. A new antidepressant formulation YL102 was investigated and developed on the basis of clinical uses and bioactivities. (11)
• Flavonoids / Anti-Tumor / Cytotoxicity: Study of whole plant yielded a new flavonoid, together with ten known flavonoids. Compound 1—3(S),4(S)-3',4'-dihydroxyl-7,8,-methylenedioxylpterocarpan—was evaluated against human tumor cells lines. Compound 1showed high cytotoxicity against HSY5Y cell with IC50 values of 2.2 μM and moderate cytotoxicities with IC50 valves 5-10 μM for other four tested cell lines. (see constituents above) (12)
• Anti-Viral Phenolic Compounds: Study isolated five new phenolic compounds, gramniphenols C-G (1-5) and eight known compounds (6-13). Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed anti0tobacco mosaic activity with IC50 of 20.8, 40.8, and 57.5 µM, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, and 6 showed anti-HIV-1 activity with therapeutic index values above 100:1. (14)
• Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride: Study of an acetic ether extract showed an inhibitory effect on lecithin lipid peroxidation induced by y-Fenton radical, LPO induced by carbon tetrachloride. Results suggest the detoxification mechanism could be related to its strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation induced by chemical poison. (15)
• Phenanthrenes / Antibacterial / Anti-Hemolytic: Study of A. graminifolia isolated six phenanthrenes. The compounds exhibited antibacterial and anti-hemolytic activities. Compounds 1 and 2 showed medium activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. Study of bactericidal mechanisms observed rupture of cell wall and membrane and leakage of nuclear mass. Compounds 1-3 attenuated erythrocyte damage. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant anti-hemolytic activity. (see constituents above) (17)
Cytoprotective / Aerial Parts: Aerial parts of A. graminifolia yielded two new phenanthrene derivatives, together with a known lignin dimer and seven known stilbenoids. Isolated compounds were studied for cytoprotective activity via reduction of beta amyloid induced toxicity on undifferentiated PC12 cells. Compound 8 showed moderate cytoprotective activity at 0.5 µmol/L (71% of cell viability). (see constituents above) (18)
• Stilbenoids / Anti-Hepatic Fibrosis Activity: Study isolated ten stilbenoids which were examined for anti-hepatic fibrosis activity against HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Compounds 4 (3,3'-dihydroxy-5--methoxy-
and compound 5 (7-hydroxy-2,8-dimethoxy-phenanthrene-1,4-dione) exhibited moderate growth inhibitory effects with IC50 61.9 µg/mL and 53.7 µg/mL, respectively. (19)
• Cytotoxic Deoxybenzoins and Diphenylethylenes: Study yielded eight new C-4-alkylated deoxybenzoins (1-8), three new diphenylethylenes (9-11) and five known diphenylethylenes. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. Compounds 4,5, and 9-11 showed significant cytotoxicity evaluated against five cancer cell lines, with IC50 ranging from 1.8 to 8.7 µM. (20)
• Antiifungal: Study evaluated 72 extracts from 12 medicinal plants, including Arundina graminifolia, f0r fungistatic and fungicidal activity against six fungal species viz. Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, I Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus brasiliensis and Tricophyton mentagrophytes. All the plant extracts showed antifungal activity with 69.21% and 41.20% of the bioassays demonstrating fungistatic and fungicidal activities, respectively. (21)
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Roots in the cybermarket.