Ayapana is a smooth, perennial herb, 30 to 60 centimeters in
height, half woody at the base, creeping and rooting at the lower part.
Young shoots have a somewhat mealy appearance due to the presence of small particles of a white balsamic exudation. Leaves are smooth, opposite,
narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, triplinerved, pointed
at both ends, distantly toothed or nearly entire margins. Flowering
heads are numerous, 6 to 13 millimeters long, bearing about 20 pink flowers, 6 to 7 millimeters long. Fruit are achenes, narrowly oblong, 5-angled, and about 2 millimeters long. Pappus is about 3 millimeters long.
- Planted occasionally for medicinal purposes, but nowhere spontaneous.
- Occasional garden cultivation.
- Introduced from Mexico.
- Now pantropic.
- A rich source of naturally occurring coumarin chemicals.
- Leaves contain a volatile oil, ayapana oil, 1.14%.
- Plant yields cineol, alpha-phellandrene,
alpha-terneol, ayapanin, ayapin, borneol, coumarin, sabinene, umbelliferone
among many others.
- Hemarin, one of the coumarins is used as an anti-tumor remedy in herbal
- Phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract yielded
hexadecanoic acid (14.65%), 2,6,10-trimethyl,14-ethylene-14-pentadecne (9.84%), Bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane, 7-butyl- (2.38%), Decanoic acid, 8-methyl-, methyl ester (3.86%), 1-undecanol (7.82%), 1-hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane (2.09%), 1,14-tetradecanediol (6.78%), Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl ester (19.18%) and 2-hydroxy-3-[(9E) -9-octadecenoyloxy] propyl(9E)-9-octadecenoate (8.79%). (11)
- Essential oil yielded 39 constituents representing 97.1-98.0% of the oils. Study yielded secondary metabolites viz., A. triplinervis: ayapanin (1), ayapin (2), daphnetin (3), daphnetin dimethyl ether (4), daphnetin- 7-methyl ether (5), hydrangetin (6), umbelliferone (7), stigmasterol (8), thymol methyl ether (9), thymoquinol dimethyl ether (10), and thymoquinone (11). (see study below) (3)
- Similar to chamomile in effects; stimulant and tonic in small doses,
laxative in quantities.
- Leaves are sudorific, tonic, febrifuge, alterative, stomachic and antiscorbutic.
- Antitussive, astringent, anticoagulant, depurative, cicatrizant, antitumorous and
Leaves, flowers, whole plant.
Leaves used for making a diet drink with its
agreeable and spicy taste.
- In the Philippines,Bruised leaves used for cleaning surfaces of foul smelling ulcers.
- As infusion. used for dyspepsia, other bowel and lung problems.
- Hot infusion is emetic and diaphoretic.
- Bitter leaves used for fever, colds and diarrhea.
- Leaves applied to forehead for relieve headaches.
- Used for cuts, scrapes and wounds.
- Peruvian indians takes
the leaf and stem for colic, stomach pains, edema.
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds and hemorrhages.
- An infusion of the leaf and stem used as digestive stimulant.
- Believed to be antineoplastic and used for cancerous tumors.
- In South America, leaves used for infusions, decoctions, baths, and teas.
- In Argentina, used to
- Used for bleeding hemorrhoids, wounds, and poison bites.
- In Brazil, leaf juice
is swished around the mouth for gingivitis and mouth ulcers.
- In the Amazon, leaf juice is used for snake bites, as a sedative and
for wound ulcers.
- In French Guiana, used
for nausea and vomiting caused by malaria.
- In Trinidad, the plant
is used for chest colds, constipation, fevers, pneumonia and yellow fever.
- In Malaya, used for bronchitis
- In the Andes and inter-Andean
valleys, used as hepatic stimulant and diuretic; leaves used for asthma
and as expectorant.
- Used for skin treatment and whitening by the native people of East Kalimantan.
- In Trinidad and Tobago,
used as anthelmintic.
- In Madagascar, leaf infusion used for burning sensations in the stomach, indigestion, diarrhea, insomnia, nausea, ulcers and vomiting. Plant juice used as emollient and astringent. Whole plant used for influenza, fever, colds, pneumonia. (14)
• Antimicrobial Activity: Results
showed that crude leaf extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve has antibacterial
and antifungal properties. (1)
• Antimicrobial Activity: Study of extracts of
leaves of Eupatorium ayapana showed the petroleum ether extract to have
higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than the methanolic extract. (2)
• Essential Oil / Thymohydroquinone: Study investigated the leaf oil composition. Three essential oil samples showed a high percentage of the aromatic compound thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether. (see constituents above) (3)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of E ayapana leaves in Wistar albino rats showed decrease of the activity of serum enzymes, bilirubin, uric acid and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that MEEA possess hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. (5)
• Anthelmintic / Flowers / Essential Oil: Essential oil from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve has been shown to possess good efficacy against Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia solium (Garg, S.C., Nakhare, S., 1993. Studies on the essential oils from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve. Indian Perfumer 37, 318-323). (6)
• Anthelmintic / Comparative Study: Eupatorium triplinerve exhibited a dose dependent anthelmintic activity against both Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli in vitro models. Alpinia galanga showed no activity against P. posthuma but exhibited potent dose dependent activity against A. galli. (7)
• Anti-Melanogenesis / 7- Methoxycoumarin / Skin Whitening: A methanol extract of leaves of E. triplinerve showed antimelamogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. 7-methoxycoumarin was isolated as an active compound. The results validated the traditional use of the plant by the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. (8)
• Antinociceptive / Antioxidant / Neurobehavioral Effects: Study evaluated the putative effects of E. triplinerve on the central nervous system. Results showed mild sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressive effects on the CNS. Antinociceptive effects not related to the opioid system and antioxidant activity were also observed. (10)
• Antioxidant Mediated Antiulcer Effect / Induced Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated the effect of a methanolic extract of fractions of E. triplinerve on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male adult mice. Results showed an antiulcer effect against UC at colon specific area through its radical scavenging activity. (11)
• Anthelmintic / Comparative Study: Eupatorium
• Anticoagulant Effect: Ayapana leaves contain naturally
occurring coumarins with its blood thinning and anti-coagulant effect.
A patient on blood thinning medications should avoid the concomitant
use of ayapana and should consult a physician.
Commercial: extracts in the cybermarket.