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Family Asteraceae
Ayapana
Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob.

WHITE SNAKEROOT

Scientific names  Common names
Ayapana officinalis Spach [Illegitimate] Apana (Tag.) 
Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob. Ayapana (Tag.) 
Eupatorium ayapana Vent. [Illegitimate] Inapana (Ilk.)
Eupatorium luzoniense Llanos Ayapana tree (Engl.)
Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl Triplinerved eupatorium (Engl.)
Eupatorium triplinerve Blume White snakeroot (Engl.)
  Yapana (Engl.)
Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl is a synonym of Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob. The Plant List
Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Ayapana.
GERMAN: Dreinerviger Wasserdost.
HINDI: Ayapan
MALAYALAM: Ayappana, Ayambana, Vishapach, Chuvanna kalyonni.
SANSKRIT: Ayapama, Ajapama.

Botany
Ayapana is a smooth, perennial herb, 30 to 60 centimeters in height, half woody at the base, creeping and rooting at the lower part. Young shoots have a somewhat mealy appearance due to the presence of small particles of a white balsamic exudation. Leaves are smooth, opposite, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, triplinerved, pointed at both ends, distantly toothed or nearly entire margins. Flowering heads are numerous, 6 to 13 millimeters long, bearing about 20 pink flowers, 6 to 7 millimeters long. Fruit are achenes, narrowly oblong, 5-angled, and about 2 millimeters long. Pappus is about 3 millimeters long.

Distribution
- Planted occasionally for medicinal purposes, but nowhere spontaneous.
- Occasional garden cultivation.
- Introduced from Mexico.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- A rich source of naturally occurring coumarin chemicals.
- Leaves contain a volatile oil, ayapana oil, 1.14%.
- Plant yields cineol, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-terneol, ayapanin, ayapin, borneol, coumarin, sabinene, umbelliferone among many others.
- Hemarin, one of the coumarins is used as an anti-tumor remedy in herbal medicine.
- Phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract yielded hexadecanoic acid (14.65%), 2,6,10-trimethyl,14-ethylene-14-pentadecne (9.84%), Bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane, 7-butyl- (2.38%), Decanoic acid, 8-methyl-, methyl ester (3.86%), 1-undecanol (7.82%), 1-hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane (2.09%), 1,14-tetradecanediol (6.78%), Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl ester (19.18%) and 2-hydroxy-3-[(9E) -9-octadecenoyloxy] propyl(9E)-9-octadecenoate (8.79%). (11)
- Essential oil yielded 39 constituents representing 97.1-98.0% of the oils. Study yielded secondary metabolites viz.,
A. triplinervis: ayapanin (1), ayapin (2), daphnetin (3), daphnetin dimethyl ether (4), daphnetin- 7-methyl ether (5), hydrangetin (6), umbelliferone (7), stigmasterol (8), thymol methyl ether (9), thymoquinol dimethyl ether (10), and thymoquinone (11). (see study below) (3)

Properties
- Similar to chamomile in effects; stimulant and tonic in small doses, laxative in quantities.
- Leaves are sudorific, tonic, febrifuge, alterative, stomachic and antiscorbutic.
- Antitussive, astringent, anticoagulant, depurative, cicatrizant, antitumorous and antiseptic.

Parts utilized
Leaves, flowers, whole plant.

Uses
Edibility
Leaves used for making a diet drink with its agreeable and spicy taste.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines,Bruised leaves used for cleaning surfaces of foul smelling ulcers.
- As infusion. used for dyspepsia, other bowel and lung problems.
- Hot infusion is emetic and diaphoretic.
- Bitter leaves used for fever, colds and diarrhea.
- Leaves applied to forehead for relieve headaches.
- Used for cuts, scrapes and wounds.
- Peruvian indians takes the leaf and stem for colic, stomach pains, edema.
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds and hemorrhages.
- An infusion of the leaf and stem used as digestive stimulant.
- Believed to be antineoplastic and used for cancerous tumors.
- In South America, leaves used for infusions, decoctions, baths, and teas.
- In Argentina, used to stimulate menstruation.
- Used for bleeding hemorrhoids, wounds, and poison bites.
- In Brazil, leaf juice is swished around the mouth for gingivitis and mouth ulcers.
- In the Amazon, leaf juice is used for snake bites, as a sedative and for wound ulcers.
- In French Guiana, used for nausea and vomiting caused by malaria.
- In Trinidad, the plant is used for chest colds, constipation, fevers, pneumonia and yellow fever.
- In Malaya, used for bronchitis and diarrhea.
- In the Andes and inter-Andean valleys, used as hepatic stimulant and diuretic; leaves used for asthma and as expectorant.
- Used for skin treatment and whitening by the native people of East Kalimantan.
- In Trinidad and Tobago, used as anthelmintic.
- In Madagascar, leaf infusion used for burning sensations in the stomach, indigestion, diarrhea, insomnia, nausea, ulcers and vomiting. Plant juice used as emollient and astringent. Whole plant used for influenza, fever, colds, pneumonia. (14)

Studies
Antimicrobial Activity: Results showed that crude leaf extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve has antibacterial and antifungal properties. (1)
Antimicrobial Activity: Study of extracts of leaves of Eupatorium ayapana showed the petroleum ether extract to have higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than the methanolic extract. (2)
Essential Oil / Thymohydroquinone: Study investigated the leaf oil composition. Three essential oil samples showed a high percentage of the aromatic compound thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether. (see constituents above) (3)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of E ayapana leaves in Wistar albino rats showed decrease of the activity of serum enzymes, bilirubin, uric acid and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that MEEA possess hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. (5)
Anthelmintic / Flowers / Essential Oil: Essential oil from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve has been shown to possess good efficacy against Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia solium (Garg, S.C., Nakhare, S., 1993. Studies on the essential oils from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve. Indian Perfumer 37, 318-323). (6)
Anthelmintic / Comparative Study: Eupatorium triplinerve exhibited a dose dependent anthelmintic activity against both Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli in vitro models. Alpinia galanga showed no activity against P. posthuma but exhibited potent dose dependent activity against A. galli. (7)
Anti-Melanogenesis / 7- Methoxycoumarin / Skin Whitening: A methanol extract of leaves of E. triplinerve showed antimelamogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. 7-methoxycoumarin was isolated as an active compound. The results validated the traditional use of the plant by the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. (8)
Antinociceptive / Antioxidant / Neurobehavioral Effects:
Study evaluated the putative effects of E. triplinerve on the central nervous system. Results showed mild sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressive effects on the CNS. Antinociceptive effects not related to the opioid system and antioxidant activity were also observed. (10)
Antioxidant Mediated Antiulcer Effect / Induced Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated the effect of a methanolic extract of fractions of E. triplinerve on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male adult mice. Results showed an antiulcer effect against UC at colon specific area through its radical scavenging activity. (11)
Anthelmintic / Comparative Study:
Eupatorium

Caution
Anticoagulant Effect: Ayapana leaves contain naturally occurring coumarins with its blood thinning and anti-coagulant effect. A patient on blood thinning medications should avoid the concomitant use of ayapana and should consult a physician.

Availability
Wildcrafted.

Commercial: extracts in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update May 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl [as Eupatorium ayapana Vent.] / Descourtilz, M.E., Flore médicale des Antilles, vol. 3: t. 203 (1827) [J. T. Descourtilz]. / Illustration contributed by the Missouri Botanical Garden / PLANT ILLUSTRATIONS / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ayapana (Ayapana triplinervis) /Raintree Nutrition
(2)
Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Eupatorium Triplinerve Against Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria and Phytopathogenic Fungi / M D . S HAFIQUR R AHMAN * AND M OHAMMAD J UNAID
(3)
Essential oil of Ayapana triplinervis from Reunion Island: A good natural source of thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether /
Anne Gauvin-Bialecki *, Claude Marodon / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology Vol 36, Issue 11, November 2008, Pages 853-858 / doi:10.1016/j.bse.2008.09.006
(4)
Antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium ayapana./ Fitoterapia. 2002 Apr;73(2):168-70.

(5)
Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Eupatorium ayapana against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Pomby A Bose et al / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS • IJPT | January 2007 | vol. 6 | no. 1 | 27-33
(6)
Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants with particular reference to their use in animals in the Indo±Pakistan subcontinent / M S Akhtar, Zafar Iqbal et al / Small Ruminant Research 38 (2000) 99±107
(7)
The Anthelmintic Activity of Eupatorium triplinerve and Alpinia galanga in Pheritima posthuma and Ascardia galli: A Comparative Study / K.R. SubaSh, N. JagaN Rao, biNoy VaRgheSe CheRiyaN, g.MuthulaKShMi bhaaRati, K. SaNdeeP KuMaR / Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2012 August, Vol-6(6): 947-950
(8)
Validation of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl Leaves, a Skin Care Herb from East Kalimantan, Using a Melanin Biosynthesis Assay / Enos Tangke Arung, Harlinda Kuspradini, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Kuniyoshi Shimizu , Ryuichiro Kondo / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Vol 5, No 2, April 2012, Pages 87–92 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2012.01.003
(9)
GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the methanolic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve / Christy Selvamangai, Anusha Bhaskar* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)1-4 1
(10)
Antinociceptive, neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl on rats. / Melo AS1, Monteiro MC, da Silva JB, de Oliveira FR, Vieira JL, de Andrade MA, Baetas AC, Sakai JT, Ferreira FA, Cunha Sousa PJ, Maia Cdo S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 May 20;147(2):293-301. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Mar 20.
(11)
GC-MS Analysis of Phytocomponents in the Methanolic Extract of Eupatorium triplinerve / Christy Selvamangai, Anusha Bhaskar* / International Journal of Drug Development & Research | October-December 2012, Vol. 4, Issue 4
(12)
Antioxidant mediated antiulcer effect of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl against acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice / Manigandan Krishnan , Richard L. Jayaraj , Jayasekar Megala , Namasivayam Elangovan / Biomedicine and Aging Pathology Doi : 10.1016/j.biomag.2013.12.002
(13)
Ayapana triplinervis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plants used in the traditional medicine of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands
/ E. Roeder, H. Wiedenfeld / Pharmazie 66: 637–647 (2011) doi: 10.1691/ph.2011.1572

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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