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Family Convolvulaceae

Aurora
Ipomoeae purpurea (L.) Roth.
COMMON MORNING GLORY

Yuan ye qian niu

Scientific names Common names
Ipomoeae diversifolia Lindl. Aurora (Tag.)
Ipomoeae glandulifera Ruiz & Pav. Common morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoeae hirsutula J. Jacq. Garden morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoeae purpurea (L.) Roth Heavenly blue morning glory (Engl.)
Pharbitis diversifolius Lindl. Tall morning glory (Engl.)
Pharbitis purpurea Asch. in Schweinf.  
Morning glory is a common name shared by many species in the Convolvulaceae family: Argyreia nervosa (wooly morning glory), Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory), Ipomoea purpurea (common morning glory), Rivea corymbosa (Turbina corymbosa, Christmas vine), Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea and Ipomoeae rubro-caerulea. Some refer to the last three as synonyms of Ipomoea purpurea.
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Yuan ye qian niu.
CUBAN: Aguinaldo purpureo.
CZECH: Povijnice nachova, Povojnik purpurovy.
DUTCH: Dagbloem.
FRENCH: Liseron, Volubilis, Ipomée pourpre.
GERMAN: Prunkwinder, Purpur-tricherwinde.
ITALIAN: Campanelle turchine.
JAPANESE: Maruba asagao.
POLISH: Wilec purpurowy.
PORTUGUESE: Gloria-da-manha, Campainha.
SPANISH: Campanicas, Campanillas, Enredadera, Suspiro, Bejuco, Maravillas, Trompillo.
SWEDISH: Purpurvinda.
TURKISH: Gece sefa.

Gen info
• The genus Ipomoea includes about 600 species distributed worldwide.
Morning glory is a common name shared by hundreds of species of flowering plants in the Convolvulaceae family: Argyreia nervosa (woolly morning glory), Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory), Ipomoea purpurea (common morning glory) to name a few.

Adding to the confusion of common names is the attribution of hallucinogenic and psychedelic properties to Morning Glory. Conflicting results confirm and contradict the presence of LSD in morning glory seed. Studies have found LSA (lysergic acid amide), a relative and precursor to LSD in the seeds of Argyreia nervosa. Some authorities report Ipomoea purpurea seeds lack psychedelic properties; some studies say otherwise.
Etymology: Ipomoea comes from the Greek word ips meaning "worm" and homois meaning "similar to." Purpurea means purple.

Botany
Ipomoea purpurea is a slender, twining vine with cordate-ovate, green leaves. Flowers are bell-shaped up to 5 centimeters across, in various colors – deep purple, blue, pink, carmine or white. New flowers bloom daily and the flowers last for a single morning and dies in the afternoon; on a cloudy day, lasting until night.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the Philippines.

Constituents
• Seeds reported to contain small quantities of the hallucinogen LSD. (1)
• A glycoresin, ipopurpuroside, has been isolated, consisting of glucose, rhamnose and 6-deoxy-D-glucose glycosidically linked to ricinoleic acid. Other studies have isolated glycoresins marubajalapins I-XV from the jalapin fraction of aerial parts (leaves and stems). Flowers have yielded cyanidins and pelargonidins. (5)
• Mineral composition analysis (g kg DM) yielded 2.69 ± 0.0300, Ca 9.08 ± 0.0112, K 9.39 ± 0.0001, Mg 0.63 ± 0.0007, Cu 14.2 ± 0.0004, Fe 0.29 ± 0.0018, Zn 2.99 ± 0.0026, P 0.75 ± 0.0009. Protein content (% DM) 20.12 ± 0.200, total phenolic content (mg of GAE/g of extract) 24.02 ± 0.24. (9)

Properties
• Considered anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative, hallucinogenic.
• Seeds considered psychoactive.

Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds.

Uses
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric use in the Philippines.
• Elsewhere, seeds used in the treatment of edema, oliguria, ascariasis and constipation.
• Seed used in the treatment of various mental disorders.

• In China, seeds used for its laxative effect.
Others
Tribal Rituals: Seeds reportedly used in African-Brazilian tribal rituals

Studies
Acylated Pelargonidin Glycosides / Pigments: Study isolated four acylated pelargonidin glycosides from the red-purple flowers of Ipomoea purpurea. There were analogous pigments of the violet-blue Ipomoea anthocyanins composed of acylated cyanidin glycosides, instead of pelargonidin. (3)
Case Reports Recreational Use Effects / D-Lysergamide / Seeds: Study reports four case reports by different authors of effects induced by seeds of Ipomoea purpurea. The effects were dose related, ranging from 2 to 25 g. Effects ranged from varying emotional states, visual distortions and hallucinations, and gastrointestinal side effects. (6)
Ipopurpuroside / Glycoside: Study isolated a new glycoside, ipopurpuroside from I. purpurea. The glycoside consists of glucose, rhamnose, and 6-deoxy-D-glucose. (8)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Seeds from the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update April 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ipomoea purpurea - (L.)Roth. / Common Morning Glory / Plants For A Future

(2)
Morning Glory (Ipomoea hederacea, Ipomoea purpurea, Ipomoea sidaefolia, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea) / DrugsEncyclopedia
(3)
Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in red-purple flowers of Ipomoea purpurea / Norio Saito et al / Phytochemistry • Vol 43, Issue 6, December 1996, Pages 1365-1370 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00501-8
(4)
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth is an accepted name
/ The Plant List
(5)
Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities
/ Marilena Meira*; Eliezer Pereira da Silva; Jorge M. David; Juceni P. David / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.3 Curitiba May /June 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000025
(6)
Recreational Use of D-Lysergamide from the Seeds of Argyreia Nervosa, Ipomoea Tricolor, Ipomoea Violacea, and Ipomoea Purpurea in Poland / Grzegorz R. Juszczak, Ph.D & Artur H. Swiergiel, Ph.D. / Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45 (1), 79–93, 2013 / DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2013.763570
(7)
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth / Synonyms / The Plant List
(8)
Ipopurpuroside, a new glycoside from Ipomoea purpurea / A. Nikolin, B. Nikolin, M. Janković /
Phytochemistry, Volume 17, Issue 3, 1978, Pages 451-452
(9)
Proximate composition, mineral content, and antioxidant properties of 14 Mexican weeds used as fodder / DORA GUTIÉRREZ,* SANDRA MENDOZA, VALENTINA SERRANO, MOUSTAPHA BAH, RICARDO PELZ, PATRICIA BALDERAS and FIDEL LEÓN / Weed Biology and Management 8, 291–296 (2008)
(10)
Ipomoea purpureaz / Common names / EPPO Global Database

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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