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Family Convolvulaceae

Aurora
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth.
COMMON MORNING GLORY

Yuan ye qian niu

Scientific names Common names
Ipomoea diversifolia Lindl. Aurora (Tag.)
Ipomoea glandulifera Ruiz & Pav. Common morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea hirsutula J. Jacq. Garden morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth Heavenly blue morning glory (Engl.)
Pharbitis diversifolius Lindl. Tall morning glory (Engl.)
Pharbitis purpurea Asch. in Schweinf.  
Morning glory is a common name shared by many species in the Convolvulaceae family: Argyreia nervosa (wooly morning glory), Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory), Ipomoea purpurea (common morning glory), Rivea corymbosa (Turbina corymbosa, Christmas vine), Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea and Ipomoeae rubro-caerulea. Some refer to the last three as synonyms of Ipomoea purpurea.
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Purpurwinde.
BRAZILIAN: Corda de viola.
CHINESE: Yuan ye qian niu.
CUBAN: Aguinaldo purpureo.
CZECH: Povijnice nachova, Povojnik purpurovy.
DUTCH: Dagbloem.
FRENCH: Liseron, Volubilis, Ipomée pourpre.
GERMAN: Prunkwinder, Purpur-tricherwinde, Purpur-prunkwinde.
ITALIAN: Campanelle turchine.
JAPANESE: Maruba asagao.
POLISH: Wilec purpurowy.
PORTUGUESE: Gloria-da-manha, Campainha.
SPANISH: Campanicas, Campanillas, Enredadera, Suspiro, Bejuco, Maravillas, Trompillo.
SWEDISH: Purpurvinda.
TURKISH: Gece sefa.

Gen info
• The genus Ipomoea includes about 600 species distributed worldwide.
Morning glory is a common name shared by hundreds of species of flowering plants in the Convolvulaceae family: Argyreia nervosa (woolly morning glory), Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory), Ipomoea purpurea (common morning glory) to name a few.

Adding to the confusion of common names is the attribution of hallucinogenic and psychedelic properties to Morning Glory. Conflicting results confirm and contradict the presence of LSD in morning glory seed. Studies have found LSA (lysergic acid amide), a relative and precursor to LSD in the seeds of Argyreia nervosa. Some authorities report Ipomoea purpurea seeds lack psychedelic properties; some studies say otherwise.
Etymology: Ipomoea comes from the Greek word ips meaning "worm" and homois meaning "similar to." Purpurea means purple.

Botany
Ipomoea purpurea is a slender, twining vine. Leave are green, heart-shaped or three-lobed. Young stems are pubescent. Flowers are bell-shaped up to 5 centimeters across, in various colors – deep purple, blue, pink, carmine or white. Capsules often contain six hairless seeds. New flowers bloom daily and the flowers last for a single morning and dies in the afternoon, on a cloudy day, lasting until night.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the Philippines.

Constituents
• Seeds reported to contain small quantities of the hallucinogen LSD. (1) (also see: 13)
• Study isolated four acylated pelargonidin glycosides from the red-purple flowers of I. purpurea, all based on pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucosde, acylated with caffeic acid and/or glycosylcaffeic acids. (see study below) (3)
• A glycoresin, ipopurpuroside, has been isolated, consisting of glucose, rhamnose and 6-deoxy-D-glucose glycosidically linked to ricinoleic acid. Other studies have isolated glycoresins marubajalapins I-XV from the jalapin fraction of aerial parts (leaves and stems). Flowers have yielded cyanidins and pelargonidins. (5)
• Mineral composition analysis (g kg DM) yielded 2.69 ± 0.0300, Ca 9.08 ± 0.0112, K 9.39 ± 0.0001, Mg 0.63 ± 0.0007, Cu 14.2 ± 0.0004, Fe 0.29 ± 0.0018, Zn 2.99 ± 0.0026, P 0.75 ± 0.0009. Protein content (% DM) 20.12 ± 0.200, total phenolic content (mg of GAE/g of extract) 24.02 ± 0.24. (9)
• Phytochemical screening of aqueous and purified pigment extracts yielded flavonoids, carbohydrates, and glycosides. Alkaloids were found only in the aqueous extract. (see study below) (14)

Properties
• Considered anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative, hallucinogenic.
• Seeds considered psychoactive.

Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds.

Uses
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric use in the Philippines.
• Seeds reportedly used for hallucinogenic effects.
• Elsewhere, seeds used in the treatment of edema, oliguria, ascariasis and constipation.
• Seed used in the treatment of various mental disorders.

• In China, seeds used for its laxative effect.
• The Vanraji tribes of Kumaun Himalaya, India, poultice of ground whole plant is applied to venereal infections like syphilis. (11)
• In Africa, used for purgative effect.
Others
Tribal rituals: Seeds reportedly used in African-Brazilian tribal rituals.

Studies
Acylated Pelargonidin Glycosides / Pigments: Study isolated four acylated pelargonidin glycosides from the red-purple flowers of Ipomoea purpurea. There were analogous pigments of the violet-blue Ipomoea anthocyanins composed of acylated cyanidin glycosides, instead of pelargonidin. (3)
Case Reports Recreational Use Effects / D-Lysergamide / Seeds: Study reports four case reports by different authors of effects induced by seeds of Ipomoea purpurea. The effects were dose related, ranging from 2 to 25 g. Effects ranged from varying emotional states, visual distortions and hallucinations, and gastrointestinal side effects. (6)
Ipopurpuroside / Glycoside: Study isolated a new glycoside, ipopurpuroside from I. purpurea. The glycoside consists of glucose, rhamnose, and 6-deoxy-D-glucose. (8)
• Absence of Lysergic Acid: Alkaloids of lysergic acid, having a hallucinogenic effect, were not detected in Ipomoea purpura and Convolvulus tricolor. (13)
• Antibacterial / Aqueous and Anthocyanin Pigment Extracts: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and purified pigment extracts of Ipomoea purpurea against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Both extracts showed clear activity against the tested strains with a MIC up to 25 mg/ml. (see constituents above) (14)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds from the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated February 2018 / April 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ipomoea purpurea - (L.)Roth. / Common Morning Glory / Plants For A Future

(2)
Morning Glory (Ipomoea hederacea, Ipomoea purpurea, Ipomoea sidaefolia, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea) / DrugsEncyclopedia
(3)
Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in red-purple flowers of Ipomoea purpurea / Norio Saito et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 43, Issue 6, Dec 1996, pp 1365-1370 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00501-8
(4)
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth is an accepted name
/ The Plant List
(5)
Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities
/ Marilena Meira*; Eliezer Pereira da Silva; Jorge M. David; Juceni P. David / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.3 Curitiba May /June 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000025
(6)
Recreational Use of D-Lysergamide from the Seeds of Argyreia Nervosa, Ipomoea Tricolor, Ipomoea Violacea, and Ipomoea Purpurea in Poland / Grzegorz R. Juszczak, Ph.D & Artur H. Swiergiel, Ph.D. / Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45 (1), 79–93, 2013 / DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2013.763570
(7)
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth / Synonyms / The Plant List
(8)
Ipopurpuroside, a new glycoside from Ipomoea purpurea / A. Nikolin, B. Nikolin, M. Janković /
Phytochemistry, Volume 17, Issue 3, 1978, Pages 451-452
(9)
Proximate composition, mineral content, and antioxidant properties of 14 Mexican weeds used as fodder / DORA GUTIÉRREZ,* SANDRA MENDOZA, VALENTINA SERRANO, MOUSTAPHA BAH, RICARDO PELZ, PATRICIA BALDERAS and FIDEL LEÓN / Weed Biology and Management 8, 291–296 (2008)
(10)
Ipomoea purpureaz / Common names / EPPO Global Database
(11)
Indigenous uses of me dicinal plants by the Vanraji tribes of Kumaun Himalaya, India / Deepika Bhatt, Ravi Kumar, G C Joshi and L M Tewari / Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, Vol 7(37), Oct 2013: pp 2747-2754 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.1272
(12)
Dynamics of mobile element activity in chalcone synthase loci in the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea). / Durbin ML, Denton AL, Cleqq MT / Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2001 Apr 24;98(9):5084-9. Epub 2001 Apr 17.
(13)
Qualitative and quantitative examination of lysergic acid derivatives in Ipomoea species. / Hahn, E. /
Gyogyszereszet, 34(7), 349-358, 1990
(14)
The Antibacterial Activity of Ipomoea Purpurea and Anthocyanine Pigment Extracts against Gram Positive and Negative Bacteria / Neeran Jassim Al-Salhi, Fatima Saiwan, Zeenah Weheed Atwan / inproceedings: AlSalhi2012TheAA

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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