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Family Brassicaceae
Arugula
Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.
SALAD ROCKET
Zi ma cai

Scientific names Common names
Brassica eruca L. Arugula(Tag., Engl.)
Brassica erucoides Hornem. Garden rocket (Engl.)
Brassica erucoides Roxb. Italian cress (Engl.)
Brassica lativalvis Boiss. Mediterranean rocket (Engl.)
Brassica pinnatifida Desf. Rocket (Engl.)
Brassica turgida Pers. Rucola (Engl.)
Brassica vesicaria L. Rugula (Engl.)
Crucifera eruca E.H.L.Krause Salad rocket (Engl.)
Eruca aurea Batt.  
Eruca cappadocica Reut.  
Eruca grandiflora Cav.  
Eruca pinnatifida (Desf.) Pomel  
Eruca ruchetta Spach.  
Eruca sativa Mill.  
Eruca sylvestris Bubani.  
Eruca vesicaria (L.) . Cav.  
Eruca vesicaria var. sativa (Mill.) Thell.  
Euzonium vesicarium (L.) Link  
Sinapis eruca (L.) Vest  
Velleruca vesicaria (L.) Pomel  
Eruca sativa Mill. is a synonym of Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. The Plant List
Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Zi ma cai.
FRENCH: Roquette commune, Roquette cultivée, Roquette des jardins.
GERMAN: Ackerrauka, Ölrauke, Rauke, Raukenkohl, Senfrauke.
GREEK: Euzomon.
HEBREW: Gargir.
HINDI: Jamba.
ITALIAN: Ruchetta, Rucola, Rucola comune, Rúcola, Rugula.
JAPANESE: Kibana-suzushiro, Roketsuto, Saradaroketsuto.
PORTUGUESE: Rúgula (Brazil).
SPANISH: rúgula, Arrúgula, Chacuacumba (Mexico), Jazamango, Rábano blanco (Mexico), Rabanillo (Mexico), Roqueta, Rúcula, Zarmao (Mexico).

Botany
Arugula is an annual erect herb growing to a height of 2 to 3 feet. Leaves are glabrous or sprarsely pilose pinnatifid, light green when young. Flowers are 1.5 to 2.0 centimeters in diameter, creamy white clawed petals, with purple veins and yellow stamens. Elongated siliques dehisce when dry, splitting to release about 20 seeds.

Distribution
- Native to western Asia and the Mediterranean region.
- Cultivated worldwide.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening of various plant extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenols, carbohydrates, steroids, and proteins. (8)
- Analysis for nutrient elements yielded 4.32% N, 0.25% P, 5.13% K, 2.95%, Ca 0.58%, Mg 799.88 mg/kg, Na 350 mg/kg, Fe 5.36 mg/kg, Cu, 40.58 mg/kg, Mn and 64.86 mgkg. (9)
- Aerial parts contains significant amount of phenolics, particularly the seeds and leaves, 27.1±0.2 mg, 23.07±0.11 GAE/g, respectively. Phenolic analysis from stem, leaves, flowers, and seed extracts yielded vanillin (RT=3.853), ellagic acid (RT=4.04), salicylic acid (RT=19.09), resorcinol (RT=3.30), catechol (RT=3.53), quercetin (RT=18.91), benzoic acid (RT=10.4), tannic acid (RT=5.06), kaempferol (RT=8.70) and rutin (RT=9.2). (11)
- Analysis of seed oil fatty acid profile yielded six major fatty acids. The major fatty acids were palmitic acid 2.80%, stearic acid 30.8%, oleic acid 17.8%, linoleic acid 1.44%, linolenic acid 6.78%, erucic acid 47.0%. (see study below) (13)
- Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of fresh leaves yielded nine natural flavonoid compounds viz. kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O- malonyl-β-D-glucopy-ranoside)-4'-O-β-D-glucopy-ranoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-O-diglucopyranoside (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-(2''-O-methylmalonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3-O- glucopyranoside (4), 4'-O-glucopyranoside (5), rhamnocitrin 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), 4'-O- glucopyranoside (7), kaempferol (8) and rhamnocitrin (9). (see study below) (14)
- Nutrient value per 100 g. yielded: (1) Principles: energy 25 kcal, carbohydrats 3.65 g, protein 2.58 g, total fat 0.66 g, cholesterol 0 mg, dietary fiber 1.6 g, (2) Vitamins: folate 97 µg, niacin 0.305 mg, pantothenic acid 0.437 mg, pyridoxine 0.073 mg, riboflavin 0.086 mg, thiamin 0.044 mg, vitamin C 15 mg, vitamin A 2373 IU, vitamin E 0.43 mg, vitamin K 108.6 µg, (3) Electrolytes: sodium 27 mg, potassium 369 mg, (4) Minerals: calcium 160 mg, copper 0.076 mg, iron 1.46 mg, magnesium 47 mg, manganese 0.321 mg, phosphorus 52 mg, selenium 0.3 µg, zinc 0.47 mg, (5) Phytonutrients: carotene-ß 1424 µg, carotene-a 0 µg, lutein-zeaxanthin 3555 µg. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base) (19)

Properties
- Young leaves are sweet and less peppery compared to the strong, spicy flavor of mature leaves.
- Considered rubefacient, anthelmintic, antiscorbutic.
- Studies suggest antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, anti-thrombotic, anti-platelet properties.

Parts used
Leaves, seeds.

Uses

Culinary / Edibility
- Its culinary use dates back to Ancient Greece.
- Standard table and culinary fare in Italy, Frane, Turkey, and Greece.
- Seeds, flowers, and pods are edible.
- Young leaves are eaten raw or cooked.
- Leaves used as garnish on salads.
Folkloric
- Used medicinally by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Historia Naturalis records rocket as an antihelmintic, treatment for eye diseases, and aphrodisiac. (5)
- Ancient rabbinical literature records use of E. vesicaria for stimulation of salivation and improving vision. Various ancient uses recorded for acne, skin diseases, hemorrhoids, and psychological problems; as repellent, expectorant, and deodorant, (5)
- Use as digestive and diuretic.
- Seed oil used as aphrodisiac.
- Used for hair loss.
- Used to treat kidney and skin disorders.
- In Palestine, used for skin and reproductive diseases. For skin disease, ground leaves applied as poultice to affected skin areas.

Studies
Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Bioactivated Metalloids:
Rocket may accumulate toxic elements such as metalloids. Study evaluated the uptake of arsenic, lead, cadmium, and zinc in rocket grown in contaminated soil. Lead, cadmium, and zinc leaf concentrations were over amounts allowed by statutory limit set for metalloid contents in vegetables. In cytotoxicity assays with HL60 human leukemic cells showed the tumoricide activities of rocket decreased with increasing metalloid concentration. (3)
Male Fertility Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of E. sativa leaves extract male fertility parameters in male albino mice. Results showed a significant (p>0.05) increase in testosterone level, sperm activity, and a significant decrease in sperm mortality and abnormalities. Histological exam showed testicular changes with a significant increase in diameter of seminiferous tubules, spermatid, and leydig cells. (6)
Anti-Platelet / Antithrombotic: Study evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract on human platelets. Results showed E. sativa Mill. AE inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation by ADP, inhibited the release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1ß, TGF-ß1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2, and inhibited NF-kB activation. In murine modles, ESAE showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. (7)
Antioxidant / Seed Oil: In an antioxidant evaluation of seed oil using DPPH free radical scavening assay, the maximum antioxidative potential was exhibited by an aqueous extract with an IC50 of 126.2. (8)
Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the gastric anti-ulcer properties of E. sativa on experimentally induced gastric secretion and ulceration in albino rats. Results showed E. sativa possesses antisecretory, cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity attributed to prostaglandin mediation activity and/or through anti-secretory and antioxidant properties. (10)
Erucin / Anticancer: Erucin (1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylthio)butane), which is metabolically and structurally related to sulforaphane, is present in large quantities in arugula. Erucin inhibits proliferation of MCF7 breast cancer cells (IC50=28 µM) in parallel with cycle arrest at mitosis and apoptosis. The suppression of microtubule dynamics by erucin and the consequent impairment of microtubule-dependent cell functions may be important in its cancer prevention activities. (12)
Eruca Seed Oil / Erucic Acid: Erucin Erucic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, was the predominant fatty acid in Eruca seed oil, which has desirable superior characteristics (high lubricity, cold stability, and fire resistance) for a variety of applications. Eruca seed oil exhibits suitability of the oil towards many industrial applications including biodiesel production. (see constituents above) (13)
Flavonoid Compounds / Fresh Leaves / Anticancer: Phytochemical analysis of fresh leaves yielded nine natural flavonoid compounds. Compounds 1 (kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O- malonyl-β-D-glucopy-ranoside)-4'-O-β-D-glucopy-ranoside) and 3 (3-O- glucopyranoside) showed cytotoxic activity in 4 different human cancer cell lines: HepG2 (liver carcinoma), MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HCT116 (colon carcinoma) and Hep2 (larynx carcinoma). (see constituents above) (14)
Bio-Protective / Seed Oil / Aflatoxin B1: Study evaluated the efficacy of seed oil to ameliorate the hazardous effect of aflatoxin B1 in male rabbits in relation to its reproductive performance. Results showed E. sativa seed oil ameliorate the harmful effects of aflatoxine, reverting all the abnormal values due to aflatoxicosis back to normal. (15)
Antihepatotoxic / Alcohol Induced Liver Injury: Study evaluated various extracts of Eruca sativa in ethanol induced liver injury in rats. Results showed both prophylactic and therapeutic effects against experimentally induced liver injury in rats, with the prophylactic effect more potent than therapeutic effect. The activity is attributed to the treatment role against oxidative stress by increasing/maintaining antioxidant molecules and enzymes. (16)
Antioxidant / Protective on Mercury Chloride Renal Toxicity: Mercury chloride is a known nephrotoxic agent. Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of E. sativa seeds and its protective effect on HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity. The seed extract showed a potent antioxidant effect and significant and dose dependent renal protective effect activity by preventing inflictrion of oxidative damage to the kidney. (17)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated crude extracts of olive leaves and arugula seeds for in vitro antibacterial activity. Results showed antibacterial actiity, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most sensitive. The arugula seeds extract had higher antibacterial activity than the olive leaves. (18)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Flowers:
Study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of solvent extract from rocket flowers. Results showed antibacterial efficiency of SERF against both gram+ and gram- bacteria, with a higher inhibition than penicillin. On antioxidant evaluation, SERF showed potent scavenging activity compared to reference curves (BHA and ascorbic acid). (20)
Nephroprotective / Diuretic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the nephroprotective, diuretic, and antioxidant effects of extracts of Petroleum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs in gentamicin-nephrotoxic rats. All three plant extracts exhibited a nephroprotective effect. The extracts also increased urine volume and urinary excretion of Na+ and K+, ameliorated renal tubular necrosis and increased activities of renal antioxidant enzymes in GM-intoxicated rats. (21)
Amelioration of Alloxan Induced Diabetes / Seed Oil: Eruca sativa seed oil was tried as preventive and treatment of DM induced experimental by alloxan injection. ESS oil (0.06 ml/kg) significantly increased hepatic GSH. Daily administration of ESS oil ameliorated hyperglycemia, improved the lipid profile, blunted increase in malondialdehyde and stimulated GSH production in the liver. Study suggested that Eruca sativa seed oil could be used as antidiabetic complement in treatment of DM. (22)
Antigenotoxic / Chemopreventive / Isothiocyanates / Human Hepatoma Cells: Study asessed the chemopreventive potency of extracts of E. sativa in HepG2 cells. E. sativa reduced the benzo(a)pyrene-induced genotoxicity in a U-shaped manner, accompanied by a significant induction of glutathione S. transferase. Chemical analysis yielded isothiocyanates erucin, sulforaphane, erysolin and phenylethyl isothiocyanate . Synergistic interaction is assumed responsible for the plant's strong genotoxicity. (23)
Interaction with Roquette / Warfarin (Anticoagulant) Resistance: E. sativa, a common salad and herbal treatment ingredient yields 130 µg of vitamin K per 100 g. A recommendation for dietary intake of Vitamin K is 65-80 µg/day. In patients taking warfarin, increased levels of vitamin K can lead to warfarin or anticoagulant resistance. (24) (Also read: Herb/Drug Interactions)
Improved Skin Barrier Function / Atopic Dermatitis: Atopic dermatitis is associated with skin barrier dysfunction. Study showed treatment for E. sativa extract resulted in a significant increase in transactivation activity of PPAR and suppression in expression of inflammatory cytokine. ES also promoted the expression of filaggrin related to skin barrier protection. Flavonoid constituents, quercetin and isorhamnetin, also promoted PPAR-α activity. Results suggest a potential for improving skiin barrier in atopic dermatitis. (25)

Precautions
- Arugula is rich in oxalic acid. Patients suffering from kidneys stones are advised to used arugula sparingly, avoiding regular consumption.
- Allergic reactions, although rare, have been reported, with symptoms ranging from mild (sore lips, throat irritation, stomach cramps) to angioedema (facial swelling) and difficulty of breathing.

Availability
Cultivated.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Novembet 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Eruca vesicaria / © Henriette Kress / click on image to go to source page / Henriette's Herbal Homepage
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Eruca vesicaria 1.JPG / Xemenendura / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Spain license. / click on photo to see source image Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. [as Crucifera eruca E.H.L.Krause] / Dame's Rocket, salad rocket
Sturm, J., Krause, E.H.L., Lutz, K.G., Flora von Deutschland in Abbildungen nach der Natur, Zweite auflage, vol. 6: t. 35, fig. 2 (1902) / PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Eruca names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(2)
Eruca vesicaria / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metal(oid)s bioactivated in rocket leaves (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa Miller). / Villatoro-Pulido M, Font R, Obregón-Cano S, Moreno-Rojas R, Amaro-López MÁ, Anter J, Muñoz-Serrano A, De Haro Bailón A, Alonso-Moraga A, Del Río-Celestino M. / Chemosphere. 2013 Nov;93(10):2554-61 / doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.071.
(4)
Identification and quantification of glucosinolate and flavonol compounds in rocket salad (Eruca sativa, Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) by LC–MS: Highlighting the potential for improving nutritional value of rocket crops / Luke Bell, Maria Jose Oruna-Concha, Carol Wagstaff / Food Chemistry, Volume 172, 1 April 2015, Pages 852–861
(5)
E. sativa / Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Middle-East / edited by Zohara Yaniv, Nativ Dudai
(6)
Study the Effect of Eruca Sativa Leaves Extract on Male Fertility in Albino Mice
/ Zena F. Hussein / Journal of Al-Nahrain University Vol.16 (1), March, 2013, pp.143-146 Science
(7)
A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket) Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition) and Antithrombotic Activities / Eduardo Fuentes, Marcelo Alarcón, Manuel Fuentes, Gilda Carrasco,* and Iván Palomo* / Nutrients. 2014 Dec; 6(12): 5839–5852. / doi: 10.3390/nu6125839
(8)
Physico- chemical investigation and antioxidant activity studies on extracts of Eruca sativa seed / Saima Hamid, Adila Sahar, Farnaz Malik, Shahzad Hussain, Rashid Mahmood, Kazi Muhammad Ashfaq, Tanveer Akhtar Malik, Abbas Hassan and Asif Hanif Chaudhry / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, December 2014
(9)
Mineral content of the rocket plant (Eruca sativa) / NT Barlas, ME Irget, M Tepecik / African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 10, No 64, 2011
(10)
Rocket 'Eruca sativa': A salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity / Alqasoumi et al. / World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2009; 15 (16) / DOI: 10.3748/wjg.15.1958
(11)
Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary metabolites and Antioxidant Potential of Eruca sativa / Alia Sadiq*, Muhammad Qasim Hayat and Sheeba Murad / Nat Prod Chem Res 2:137./ doi: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000137
(12)
Erucin, the Major Isothiocyanate in Arugula (Eruca sativa), Inhibits Proliferation of MCF7 Tumor Cells by Suppressing Microtubule Dynamics / Olga Azarenko, Mary Ann Jordan, Leslie Wilson / PLoS ONE 9(6): e100599./ DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100599
(13)
Extraction and characterization of industrially valuable oil from Eruca sativa (L.) Mill. through FT-IR and GC-MS analysis / Vinay Sharma*, Gajra Garg, Afroz Alam / American Journal of Biological Chemistry
2014; 2(4): 23-28
(14)
Studies on the chemical constituents of fresh leaf of Eruca sativa extract and its biological activity as anticancer agent in vitro. / Helana Naguib Michael*, Reham Ezzat Shafik, George Emad Rasmy / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(7), pp. 1184-1191, 4 April, 2011
(15)
BIO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ERUCA SATIVA SEED OIL AGAINST THE HAZARDOUS EFFECT OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN MALE – RABBITS / Emtenan M. Hanafi, Eman M. Hegazy, Rowida M. Riad , H.A. Amer / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 2. No. 2. March 2010
(16)
Antihepatotoxic Effect of Eruca Sativa Extracts on Alcohol Induced Liver Injury in Rats / Jihan Hussein, Azza Salah, Fatma Oraby, Amany Nour El-Deen and Zakarya El-Khayat / Journal of American Science 2010;6(11)
(17)
Eruca sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity. / Sarwar Alam M,
Kaur G, Jabbar Z, Javed K, Athar M / Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 45:6 2007 Jun pg 910-20
(18)
Antibacterial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea ) Leaves and Arugula (Eruca sativa) Seeds Extract / Salma Nassrullah Malik / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research
(19)
Arugula Nutrition Facts / Nutrition and You
(20)
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of solvent extract obtained from rocket (Eruca sativa L.) flowers
/
Mohamed Koubaa,* Dorra Driss, Fatma Bouaziz, Raoudha Ellouz Ghorbel Semia Ellouz Chaabouni / Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Vol. 5, Issue 1, Jan - Jun 2015
(21)
Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats / Mostafa Abbas Shalaby, Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda. / J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(1): 1-8doi: 10.5455/jice.20131130022009
(22)
Amelioration of Alloxan Induced Diabetes mellitus and Oxidative Stress in Rats by Oil of Eruca sativa Seeds
/
El-Missiry M.A., El Gindy A.M. / Ann Nutr Metab 2000 ;44: 97–100 / DOI:10.1159/000012829
(23)
Antigenotoxic properties of Eruca sativa (rocket plant), erucin and erysolin in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells towards benzo(a)pyrene and their mode of action / Evelyn Lamy, Julia Schröder, Stefanie Paulus, Peter Brenk, Thorsten Stahl, Volker Mersch-Sundermann / Food Chem Toxicol 2008 Jul 1;46(7):2415-21.
(24)
Warfarin resistance: inter- action between warfarin and Eruca sativa L. / Mustafa Goza, Fugen Gozb, Omer Cakira, Belkis Aydinolc, Nesimi Erena / SWISS MED WKLY 2006;136:327
(25)
Eruca sativa and its Flavonoid Components, Quercetin and Isorhamnetin, Improve Skin Barrier Function by Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-α and Suppression of Inflammatory Cytokines / Bora Kim, Yoon-E Choi andHyun-Soo Kim* / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 28, Issue 9, pp 1359–1366, Sept 2014 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5138
(26)
Studies on Folkloric Medicinal Plants Used by Palestinians in the Qalqilia District / RAEDA TAWFEEQ EBRAHIM DAOUD / Thesis

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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