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Family Leguminosae / Fabaceae
Andadasi
Senna sophera
(L.) Roxb.
KASONDI SENNA
Huai ye jue ming

Scientific names Common names
Cassia atroviridis Span. Andadasi (Ilk.)
Cassia autropurpurea Benth. Algarrobilla (Engl.)
Cassia canca Cav. Tambalisa (Tag.)
Cassia esculenta Roxb. Brush senna (Engl.)
Cassia frutescens Mill. Kasondi senna (Engl.)
Cassia geminiflora Schrank Pepper leaved senna (Engl.)
Cassia indica Poir. Kasondi senna (Engl.)
Cassia lanceolata Link Senna (Engl.)
Cassia linearis Michx.  
Cassia lineata Michx.  
Cassia patula Aiton  
Cassia proboscidea Pollard  
Cassia sophera L.  
Cassia sopheroides Roxb.  
Cassia torosa Cav.  
Chamaefistula sophera G.Don  
Ditremexa sophera (L.) Britton & Wilson  
Senna esculenta Roxb.  
Senna sophera (L.) Roxb.  
Cassia sophera L. is a synonym of Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. The Plant List
Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jiang jiang jue ming, Huai ye jue ming.
HAWAIIAN: Banar, Bas-ki-kasunda, Kasaunda, Kasundari.
HINDI: Kasaunda.
INDIA: Kasodia, Kasmard (Ayurveda).
INDONESIA: Enceng-enceng.
LAOS: Ngot.
MALAYALAM: Pounantakara.
SPANISH: Algarrobilla.
TAMIL: Ponaverai, Takarai.
THAILAND: Phak khlet, Phak waan baan.
VIETNAMESE : Muồng hoè, Muồng ngót.

Botany
Andadasi is closely allied to Cassia occidentalis (Balatong-aso), from which it differs by its more shrubby habit, its more numerous, smaller, narrower leaflets, and its short, broader and more turgid pods, which are not usually torulose when mature.

Distribution
- Occasional weed in settled areas at low and medium altitudes from northern to central Luzon.
- Pantropic species of American origin.

- Also occurs in India and most tropical countries.

Constituents
- Owes its medicinal activity to the presence of chrysophanic acid, sometimes called rhein.
- Also reported to contain emodin.

- Study of seeds isolated a new hydroanthracene derivative named presengulone [9-(6'-methoxy-3'-methyl-3',8',9'-trihydroxy-1'-oxo-1',2',3',4'-tetrahydro-a nthracene-7'-yl)-5,10-dihydroxy-2- methoxy-7-methyl-1,4-anthraquinone], together with physcion, physcion bianthrone, xanthorin, floribundone-1, isosengulone, sengulone, and anhydrophlegmacin-9,10-quinones A2 and B2. (11)
- Study reported two new anthraquinones from the root bark - 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6,-dimethoxy-2-methyl-7-vinylanthraquinone and 1,3-dihydroxy-5,7,8-trimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone. (2)
- Studies have yielded triterpenoids, crysophanol, dianthraquinone, anthraquinone.
- Phytochemical screening of aerial parts yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, fixed oils, fats, glycosides, and sterols. (20)
- Preliminary screening of matured seed coat yielded secondary metabolites, viz., saponin, alkaloids, and cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (22)
- Phytochemical screening of bark yielded steroids, glycosides, tannins, gums and mucilage, fats and oils. (see study below) (23)
- Study on seeds have yielded ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and ß-sitosterol. (24)
- Phytochemical evaluation of leaves, seeds, and roots yielded anthraquinone glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, mucilage; leaves yielded anthraquinone glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, and mucilage; seeds also yielded saponins. (24)
- Study of leaves yielded isolated seven compounds: butanedioic acid (1), 1, 2, 4-butanetriol triacetate (2), 7-hexadecene (3), E-15-heptadecenal (4), 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (5), 3-eicosene (6), and 10-heneicosene (7). Methanol extracts yielded carbohydrates, anthraquinone glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, tannins and phenolics. (25
- Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves yielded tannin, phlobatannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (28)
- GC-MS analysis of leaves for essential oil yielded 29 constituents representing 94.14% of total oil composition. Major constituents were benzyl alcohol (9.08%), isoeugenol (4.94%), germacrene D (4.82%), isocreosol (5.69%), phenylethyl alcohol (5.03%), azulene (4.65%), linolenic acid (1.56%). (see study below) (29)

Properties
-Seeds considered febrifuge.
- Diuretic, anthelmintic.
- Studies suggest analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, herbicidal, larvicidal, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, laxative, and fungicidal properties.

Parts used
Roots, bark, seeds, and leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- Juice of leaves made into plaster with sandal wood or mixed with lime juice, used for ringworm.
- Also used for dhobi itch.
- Externally, used for washing syphilitic sores.
- Juice dropped into ears invaded by insects.
- Internally, used as expectorant for coughs.
- Root taken internally with black pepper for snake bites.
- Infusion or decoction of leaves, with black pepper, used for asthma and hiccups
- Root used for snake bites.
- Infusion of fresh leaves injected for gonorrhea in its subacute stage.
- Internally, used as anthelmintic.
- Infusion of leaves used as antirheumatic and for inflammatory fevers.
- Infusion of leaves, mixed with sugar, used for jaundice.
- Decoction of the whole plant is used for diminishing urine and as expectorant in acute bronchitis.
- Bruised leaves and bark of root, powdered and mixed with honey, applied externally to ringworm and ulcers.
- Infusion of bark or powdered seeds, with honey, given for diabetes.
- Seeds used for fever.
- Ointment from bruised seeds, leaves and sulphur, ground into a paste, mixed with honey, used as an application for ringworm, pityriasis and psoriasis.
- In India, used for common colds, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other respiratory affections. Also used for osteoarthritis.
- In India, used for ascites, liver dyscracias, piles, jaundice, fever, and palpitations. (24)
- In Bangladesh, root juice used for fevers and as diuretic; paste from leaves used for ringworm and sores.
- The Kandhas of Kandhamal district of Orissa use the paste of roots of Achyranthes aspera and Cassia sophera to treat scabies. (31)


Studies
Radical Scavenging Activity / Phenolic Content:
Study showed the phenolic content to be highest in the ethanol fraction. The free radical scavenging activity was higher than the control synthetic antioxidant. Results suggest the plant can serve as a source of natural antioxidants and preservative agents with potential applications in the food industries. (1)
Anti-Asthmatic: Study showed the C sophera extract significantly protected the bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs against histamine-induced bronchospasm. Animals pretreated with the parent extract and fraction showed significant (p<0.005 inhibition in reducing paw edema in passive paw anaphylaxis. (4)
Seed Oil Constituents: Study of seed oil yielded 43 compounds. The major constituents were palmitic acid (22.82 %), linoleic acid (8.32 %), elaidic acid (19.16 %), stearic acid (9.86 %) among others. (6)
Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanol extract of C. sophera in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. (7)
In Vitro Thrombolysis / Cytotoxicity Study: An in vitro thrombolytic model evaluated the clot lysis effect of six Bangladesh herbal extracts including Senna sophera L. Senna sophera showed 31.61 ±2.97% clot lysis. In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, it showed 233.37 ±7.74 µg/ml, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76 ±0.04). (9)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of C. sophera leaves against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in adult wistar rats. Results showed potent hepatoprotective action which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. (10)
Bioactivity Against Storage Pests: Study reports on the inhibitory and toxic effects of extracts of powdered leaves of Cassia sophera against Sitophilus oryzae and Callosobruchus maculatus infestation of stored rice and cowpea. (13)
Antipyretic: Study evaluated fresh juice and ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna sophera for antipyretic activity with adult Wistar albino rats. (14)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated an alcoholic leaf extract of C. sophera for antibacterial potential against various uropathogenic bacteria. Results showed good antibacterial activity with maximum activity against E. coli, K. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa, with moderate activity against S. saprophyticus, P. mirabilis and C. freundii. (15)
Analgesic/ Anticonvulsant / Seeds: Preliminary screening of seed extract of Cassia sophera L. var. purpurea Roxb. exhibited analgesic, anticonvulsant effects and potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time. (17)
Antinociceptive / Antipyretic / Leaves: Study of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of CS leaves showed significant analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing and central analgesic activity by heat-induced pain in mice and significant dose-dependent antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rodents. (18)
Diuretic / Laxative: Study evaluated the diuretic and laxative activity acute toxicity of various extracts of Cassia sophera in laboratory rats. A methanol extract showed significant diuretic effect with notable increase in rates of water and sodium excretion. An ethanolic extract showed significant laxative effect in a dose dependent manner. Study also showed C. sophera to be safe and failed to exhibit toxicity in the rodent model. (19)
Anti-Inflammatory / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of aerial parts for anti-inflammatory activity. LD50 for alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed no mortality up to maximum of 2g/kg dose. Both extracts significantly reduced paw edema volume in carrageenan and formalin induced (acute) paw edema model in rats. (see constituents above) (20)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study evaluated various fractions of CS for antioxidant (DPPH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced edema), analgesic (acetic acid induced writhing) activities. An ethanol fraction showed concentration dependent reducing power. All fractions showed significant (p<0.05) dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity with the ethanol fraction showing the highest reduction of paw edema and also the activity against acetic acid induced writhing. Results suggest substance like flavonoids which modulate oxidative stress may contribute to the activities. (21)
Larvicidal / Seed Coat: Study evaluated the larvicidal activity of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of matured seed coat of C. sophera against Culex quinquefasciatus. All graded concentrations from 0.6% to 1.0% showed significant (p<0.05) larval mortality correlating with extracts concentration. (see constituents above) (22)
• Anti-Diabetic / Bark: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of C. sophera bark in STZ-induced diabetic rat model. Results showed an extract dose of 400 mg/kg with effective antidiabetic activity. (23)
• Anti-Diabetic / Increased Insulin Secretion / Seeds: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of C. sophera seed extracts in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction in elevated glycosylated haemoglobin and increased insulin level. Further study showed the extract stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets. Effect was dose dependent and the increased insulin secretion was independent of K-ATP channels of the ß-cells. (26)
• Enzyme Inhibitory Effect / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant capabilities and inhibitory effect of C. sophera against key enzymes in human pathologies viz. diabetes (α-glucosidase) and neurodegenerative disorders (acetylcholinesterase). Methanol leaf and root extracts showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase significantly higher than reference drug acarbose. The antioxidant capacities and anticholinesterase inhibitory activities were less potent than controls. (27)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the essential oil and various organic extracts from Cassia sophera leaves against isolated bacteria. Study of dried leaves for essential oil yielded 29 constituents. Study showed antimicrobial activity against tested strains. The antibacterial activity may be attributed to oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the essential oil of leaves. (see constituents above) (29)
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated different extracts of leaves in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The methanol extract showed maximum blood glucose lowering effect (58.63%), followed by EA (47.12%) and chloroform (37.12%) extracts. Effect was compared with Glibenclamide which reduced blood glucose by 63.69%. (30)
• Thrombolytic / Clot Lysis Effect: Study evaluated six Bangladesh aqueous plant extracts for clot lysis effect using streptokinase as control and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality biossay with vincristine as positive control. Senna sophera showed significant clot lysis activity at 31.61±2.97%. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity compared to control. (32)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated August 2017 / March 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo of Brush Senna (Senna sophera) / Photo by Glenn Leiper / click on image to go to source page / Copyright © Queensland Government / nrm.qld.gov..au
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. - algarrobilla / Tracey Slotta @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content of Cassia sophera L. / Atiqur Rahman, M Mizanur Rahman, Mominul Islam Sheik et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (10), pp. 1591-1593, 16 May, 2008
(2)
Anthraquinones from Cassia sophera root bark / A Dass, T Joshi and S Shukla / Phytochemistry, Volume 23, Issue 11, 1984, Pages 2689-2691 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84134-5
(3)
Study of Medicinal Plants in the Graveyards of Rajshahi City / A H M M Rahman, M Anisuzzaman et al / Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 4(1): 70-74, 2008
(4)
Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Cassia sophera linn / D H Nagore, V K Ghosh, M J Patil / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009, Vol 5, No 19, Pp 109-118
(5)
Sorting Senna names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(6)
Composition of Oil from the Seeds of Cassia Sophera Linn. / M Mostafa, Momtaz Ahmed et al / Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 42(1), 75-78, 2007
(7)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA SOPHERA LEAVES EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCE HEPATIC INJURY IN RATS / Wankhade PW, Nagore DH, Kotagale NE et al / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 2, No 3, July-Set 2011
(8)
Senna occidentalis var. (L.) Link var. sophera (L.) X. Y. Zhu (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(9)
Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity. / Rahman MA, Sultana R, Bin Emran T, Islam MS, Rahman MA, Chakma JS, Rashid HU, Hasan CM. / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Jan 30;13:25. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-25.
(10)
Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn. / Arijit Mondal, Sanjay Kumar Karan, Tanushree Singha, D. Rajalingam, and Tapan Kumar Maity / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / doi:10.1155/2012/436139
(11)
A 1,4-anthraquinone-dihydroanthracenone dimer from Senna sophera / Alemayehu G. · Abegaz B. · Kraus W. / Journal Phytochemistry, June 1998

(12)
Senna sophera / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
Comparative study of field and laboratory evaluations of the ethnobotanical Cassia sophera L. (Leguminosae) for bioactivity against the storage pests Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) / Cristina Kestenholz, Philip C. Stevenson, Steven R. Belmain / Journal of Stored Products Research, Volume 43, Issue 1, 2007, Pages 79–86
(14)
Study on Antipyretic Effect of Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. (Kazaw-pok-nge) / Aung Kyaw Min / Lashio University, Sept 2015
(15)
Evaluation of antibacterial potential of medicinal plant Cassia sophera against organisms causing urinary tract infection / Noor Jahan *, Razia Khatoon and Siraj Ahmad / Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 3 (2): 450-455 (2015)
(16)
Senna sophera / Common names / Prota4U
(17)
PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF CASSIA SOPHERA, LINN. VAR. PURPUREA, ROXB. / AHMAD BILAL** NAEEM A. KHAN** A. GHUFRAN** INAMUDDIN* / Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences 15:3, 105-109, 2005
(18)
Anti-nociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cassia sophera Linn. Leaves / Debasish Roy, Manik Chandra Shill, Shrabanti Dev, Debashish Deb, Masum Shahriar, Asish Kumar Das1 and M. Shahabuddin Kabir Choudhuri / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 15(2): 107-11, 2012
(19)
Diuretic and Laxative Activity of Cassia Sophera Linn, a Prevalent Western Ghat Species
/ Santosh U. Yele*, S.B. Gokhale , S. J. Surana, A. Veeranjaneyulu / Pharmacologyonline 1: 47-52 (2010)
(20)
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES WITH AERIAL PART EXTRACTS OF CASSIA SOPHERA (LINN) IN WISTAR RATS / Suhael Ashraf, Md Shamsuddin Munawar*, Maneesh Kumar Srivastav, Mohammed Sayeed, Faiz Ahmed, Lakshman D / International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, Volume 1, Issue 3, July-August 2013, PP. 103-106
(21)
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND IN VIVO­ ANTI­INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CASSIA SOPHERA LINN / DHEERAJ H. NAGORE*, VIVEK KUMAR GHOSH, MANOHAR J. PATIL, ATUL M. WAHILE / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 2, Issue 1, 2010
(22)
Evaluation of Mosquito Larvicidal Activities of Seed Coat Extract of Cassia sophera L. / Mousumi Kundu, Anjali Rawani, Goutam Chandra / Journal of Mosquito Research, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 11 / doi: 10.5376/jmr.2013.03.0011
(23)
Preliminary phytochemical and anti-diabetic activity of Cassia sophera Linn / Nandhini S, Geethalakshmi S, Selvam S, Radha R, Jerad Suresh A, Muthusamy P / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2016; 5(1): 87-91
(24)
Pharmacognostical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Cassia sophera Linn. / Chavan Chetan et al / IJRAP (2011), 2(2), Pp 615-620
(25)
Identification of Chemical Compounds from the Cassia sophera  / A. R. Kharat, K.R. Kharat, A. Kumar, S. Das / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013: 3(2)
(26)
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CASSIA SOPHERA IN STZ INDUCED DIABETIC RATS AND ITS EFFECT ON INSULIN SECRETION FROM ISOLATED PANCREATIC ISLETS / Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh, Priyanka Bhardwaj / International Journal of Phytomedicine, Vol 5, No 3 (2013)
(27)
ENZYME INHIBITORY PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF CASSIA SOPHERA LINN. (CAESALPINIACEAE) / SAJID NAWAZ HUSSAIN*, BASHIR AHMAD CHAUDHARY, MUHAMMAD UZAIR, MUHAMMAD NAEEM QAISAR and ALAMGEER* / Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutical Drug Research, Vol. 74 No. 4
(28)
Evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaves of Ficus minahassae Tesym & De Vr., Casuarina equisetifolia Linn., Leucosyke capitellata (Pior) Wedd., Cassia sophera Linn., Derris elliptica Benth., Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk., Piper abbreviatum Opiz., Ixora chinensis Lam., Leea aculeata Blume, and Drymoglossum piloselloides Linn. / Rachel A. E. Lagunay, Mylene M. Uy / AAB Bioflux, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1
(29)
Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil and various extracts from Cassia sophera L. against Bacillus sp. from soil / M. Mizanur Rahman, Taslima Sultana, M. Yousuf Ali, M. Masidur Rahman, Sharif M. Al-Reza, Atiqur Rahman / Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Vol 10, Suppl 2, May 2010 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.045
(30)
Antihyperglycemic effect of Cassia sophera leaf extracts in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. / Dolui, Ashoke; Das, Sanjib; Kharat, Amol / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines . 2012, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p8-13. 6p.
(31)
Medicinal plants used by the Kandhas of Kandhamal district of Orissa / Soumit K Behera, Anima Panda, Susanta K Behera & Malaya K Misra * / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 5(4)-October 2006. pp 519-528
(32)
Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity / M Atiar Rahman, Rabeya SultanaTalha Bin EmranM Saiful IslamM Ashiqur Rahman Joti Sankhar  ChakmaHarun-ur Rashid and Chowdhury Mohammad Monirul Hasan / BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineThe official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) 2013, 13:25 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-25

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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