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Family Sterculiaceae
Anabo
Abroma augusta Linn.
DEVIL'S COTTON

Shuo ma

Scientific names Common names
Abroma alata Blanco Ambong (Tag.)
Abroma angulata Lam. Anabo (Ibn., Ilk., Tag., Bis., Ting.)
Abroma angulosa Poir. Anabong (Bik.)
Abroma augusta (L.) L.f. Anibong (Tag.)
Abroma communis Blanco Anabu (Pang.)
Abroma denticulata Miq. Anafu (Is.)
Abroma elongata Lam. Bago (Bik.)
Abroma fastuosa R.Br. Bodo-bodo (Ilk.)
Abroma javanica Miq. Labon (P. Bis.)
Abroma mariae Mart. Nabo (Ibn., C. Bis.)
Abroma mollis DC. Negnegan (Iv.)
Abroma obliqua C.Presl. Pakalkal (Pamp.)
Abroma sinuosa G.Nicholson Sayapo (Mag.)
Abroma wheleri Retz. Sayapu (Mag.)
Ambroma augustum (L.) L.f. Perennial Indian hemp (Engl.)
Herrania mariae (Mart.) Decne. ex Goudot Devil's cotton (Engl.)
Theobroma augustum L.  
Theobroma mariae (Mart.) K. Schum.  
Abroma augusta (L.) L.f. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Bon kopashi.
BENGALI: Ulat kambal.
CHINESE: Shuo ma.
HINDI: : Ulat kambal.
TAMIL: Sivapputtutti.

Botany
Anabo is a shrub or small tree, growing 2 to 3 meters high. Branches and branchlets are downy. Leaves are alternate, ovate, 10 to 15 centimeters in length, 10 to 12 centimeters wide, with a pointed tip, heart-shaped base, and toothed margins. Flowers are bisexual, about 5 centimeters across, yellowish with purple bases. Fruit is a capsule, obpyramidal, about 3.5 centimeters in diameter, covered with irritating hairs, ultimately smooth, with five prominent angles or wings, which are 4 to 7 centimeters across. Seeds are subellipsoid, numerous and finely punctate.

Distribution
- Found from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- In thickets, waste places, and open secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.

- Also reported from India to southern China to Malaya.

Constituents
- Whole plant has yielded alkaloids and secondary metabolites including steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, megastimanes, benzohydrofurans, and glycosides, and phenylethanoid glycosides.
- Root contains a fixed oil, resins, an alkaloid in minute quantity (0.01%), and water soluble bases.
- Study of roots yielded some alkaloid bases, reducing sugars and some phytosterols.
- Study reported a large amount of magnes
ium salts in combination with hydroxy acids, gums, resins and other organic residues.

- Mucilage from root bark was identified as an acidic polysaccharide with a main chain composed of 1,2-linked α-L-rhamnopyranose and 1,4- or 1,3-linked α-D-galacturonic acid residues. (18)
- Study of seed oil extracted with n-hexane by GCMS technique yielded six fatty acids, four were saturated (66.6%: n-hexadecanoate, 2-methyl hexadecanoate, n-octadecanoate and 2-methyl octadecanoate) and two were unsaturated (33.3%: 9-octadecenoate, 10-nonadecenoate). (21)

Properties
- The presence of magnesium salts with some hydroxy acids have made it valuable as a styptic for use in uterine hemorrhages.
- Considered emmenagogue.


Parts used
Root, bark, sap.

Uses

Folkloric
- Root used as efficient emmenagogue.
- Infusion of fresh stems and leaves in cold water is a demulcent and used in gonorrhea.
- In Ayurveda, used for chronic dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
- In Bangladesh, leaves and stems used for menstrual disorders and diseases of the uterus; bark and roots for leucorrhea and menstrual problems. Also, used for stomachaches, diabetes, dermatitis, and whitish urinary discharge in men.
- In India, used for dysmenorrhe
a. Fresh and dried root bark used as uterine tonic and emmenagogue.
Also used for wound healing and sterility.
- In Indonesia, used for scabies.
- Fresh viscid sap is useful in congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhea. Used as a regulator of menstrual flow and as uterine tonic.
- In the
Himalayas, decoction of stem bark and leaves taken on alternate days on an empty stomach to treat diabetes. (29)
- The Santals of Bangladesh use the juice to root bark to regulate menstrual flow. (
30)
Others
- Fiber: Bast fiber is silky and valued for its strength. In the Philippines, used for making rope, twine, fish-lines, pouches, etc. A favorite clothes-line material because it does not stain.


Studies
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic:
Study of aqueous extract of Abroma augusta on alloxan diabetic rats showed both hypoglycemic effects with gradual and significant fall in fasting glucose and improvement in glucose tolerance. It also showed lowering of total and LDL cholesterol. (1)
Combined Herbal Effects / Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant: Study showed on the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Curcuma longa and Abroma augusta constituents on STZ-induced diabetic rats showed that the
combination of herbal extracts showed better efficacy as compared to individual herbal plant extracts used. (2)
Anti-Diabetic / Comparative Study: A comparative study was made on the antidiabetic activities of methanolic extracts of Abroma augusta and seeds of Syzygium cumini in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction of glucose level. The activity was attributed to inhibition of free radical generation and
tissue damage induced by alloxan or potentiation of insulin effect. Comparatively, SC was more efficacious than AA. (5)
Anti-Diabetic / Effect of Metformin Absorption / Fresh Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of root bark in the management of type 2 DM and to observe its effects on the absorption of metformin from the GI tract of rats. Results showed significant reduction of glucose absorption There was also significant reduction of absorption of metformin in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results suggest benefit in improving glycemic control in diabetic patients, but should not be co-administered with metformin in the management of type2DM. (7)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of different parts of Abroma augusta for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Results showed potent anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac and probably due to alkaloid and flavonoid contents. (8) Study evaluated various extracts and solvents of dried and pulverized roots for anti-inflammatory activity. A methanolic extract exhibited significant activity in carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma models. (20)
Anti
bacterial / Antifungal / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of two Bangladeshi medicinal plants Dillenia indica and Abroma augusta. Results showed both plants possessed moderate antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. (9)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing profile of an alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta and its effect on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in Wistar rats. Results showed wound healing properties with significantly increased breaking strength of the incision wound, while the dexamethasone treated animals was significant decreased. The alcoholic extract was found to reverse dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. (10)
Prevention of Pancreatic Lipase Activity: Study evaluated the chick pancreatic lipase activities of Abroma augusta. The extract effectively inhibited lipase activity in a concentration dependent manner. At 100 µg/mL there was 88.6% enzyme activity. (11)
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of acetone extracts of leaves. Results showed significant antibacterial activity and antifungal activity. Extract showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. (12)
Reduced Post-Prandial Glucose Absorption / Fresh Leaves: Study showed the dietary fiber present in the aqueous extract of leaves may be potentially effective in the management of T2DM by reducing post-prandial glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. (13)
Biochemical and Histomorphological Effects / Leaves: Study of aqueous extract of leaves showed an increase in the number of beta cells in treated diabetic rabbits. Results suggest antioxidant effect or regenerative ability in ameliorating biochemical and histomorphological abnormalities in diabetic rabbits. (14)
Antidiabetic / Attenuation of Nephro-Cardiomyopathy: Study evaluated the protective effect of defatted methanol extract of A. augusta leaves against T2DM and its associated nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in experimental rats. Results showed oral administration of AA at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kbw per day could reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemmia, membrane disintegration, oxidative stress vascular inflammation and prevent activation of oxidative stress induced signaling cascades leading to cell death. Study suggests a potential for a prophylactic role against T2DM and its associated reno-cardiotoxicity. (15)
Synergistic Blood Sugar Lowering / Abroma augusta and Azadirachta indica: Study evaluated the use of combined (1:1) water extract of dried powder of root and leaves of A. augusta and A. indica orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed A. augusta roots and A. indica leaves given as a water extract had hypoglycemic action and had better effect than given alone. (16)
Blood Glucose Lowering / Inhibition of Metformin Absorption / Leaves: Study evaluated the probably mechanism of antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of A. augusta and the effect of the extract on absorption of metformin from the gastrointestinal tract. Results showed the extract of fresh leaves reduces absorption of glucose and helps in glucose tolerance. Study also showed the water-soluble fibers in the aqueous fraction substantially reduced metformin activity in diabetic rats. The inhibition could be due to a physical and/or chemical interaction of metformin with the fibers of the extract, a mechanism that needs to be investigated. (17)
Thrombolytic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of methanolic leaf extracts of Abroma augusta showed good antioxidant and thrombolytic activity. Results showed significant (50.1%) clot lysis compared to negative control (water). (19)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity / COX and LOX Inhibitory Potential: Study in albino wistar rats evaluated the aerial parts of of A. augusta and Desmodium gangeticum for cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. Each plant showed significant (p<0.0001) reduction of carrageenan induced paw edema. The anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts could be due to inhibition of COX and LOX enzymes. (22)
Analgesic / Seeds: Study in mice of an n-hexane fraction from seeds of A. augusta showed significant antinociceptive activity using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate test models. (23)
Gold Nanoparticles / Bark: Study reports on a one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) utilizing a bark extract of A. augusta, acting both as reducing and stabilizing agent. (24)
Antipyretic / Analgesic: Study evaluated a methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots for antipyretic (Brewer's yeast induced fever) and analgesic (Eddy's hot plate, acetic acid-induced mouse writhing test and tail immersion test) activity using Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant antipyretic activity. The extract also showed significant analgesic effect, higher in bark than leaf and root. (25)
Abortifacient / Analgesic: In a study of plants for antifertility properties, the benzene extract of Abroma augusta roots showed significant abortifacient effects. (26)
Repellent / T. castaneum: All test extracts of A. augusta collected in chloroform showed repellent activity against adult beetles of T. castaneum with repellency in the order of stem bark>seed>root wood>leaf> stem wood. (27)
Stigmasterol and ß-Sitosterol / Anti-Arthritic and Anti-Gut / Roots: Study quantified the stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol content of roots of A. augusta and evaluated its in vitro biological activities. A methanolic extract showed good anti-arthritic and anti-gout activities. (28)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Abroma augustum Blanco2.425b-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / File:Image001 (5) Abroma augusta olat kambal .jpg/ DR Subhransu / 19 July 2011 / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Preliminary studies on the hypoglycaemic effect of Abroma augusta in alloxan diabetic rats / Halim Eshrat, M. Ali Hussain, Kaiser Jamil and Mala Rao / INDIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Volume 16, Number 1, 77-80, DOI: 10.1007/BF02867572
(2)
HYPOGLYCEMIC, HYPOLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF COMBINATION OF CURCUMIN FROM CURCUMA LONGA, Linn, AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED PRODUCT FROM ABROMA AUGUSTA, Linn. IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETES / Halim Eshrat M. Ali Hussain / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2002, 17 (2) 33-43
(3)
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding - Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment / Dr. A. A. Mundewad /
(4)
Traditional Use of Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh to Treat Urinary Tract / Shahadat Hossan Abu Hanif, Bipasha Agarwala et al / www.ethnobotanyjournal.org/vol8/i1547-3465-08-061.pdf
(5)
Comparative study of antidiabetic effect of Abroma augusta and Syzygium cumini on alloxan induced diabetic rat / Laizuman Nahar, Farhana Alam Ripa et al / Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2010, 1(6): 1268-1272

(6)
Ambroma augusta (L.) L. f. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China

(7)
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Fresh Leaves of Abroma augusta L. on Oral Absorption of Glucose and Metformin Hydrochloride in Experimental Rats / Tariqul Islam, Ajijur Rahman, and Anwar Ul Islam / ISRN Pharmaceutics, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/472586
(8)
Phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Abroma augusta Linn / Sutapa Das, Rana Datta, and Subhangkar Nandy / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S114-S117
(9)
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF DILLENIA INDICA THUNB AND ABROMA AUGUSTA LIN
N / Md. Zia Uddin*, Dibyajyoti Saha, Aninda Kumar Nath, Anowara Jenny, Mycal Dutta and Swati Paul / Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;2(3):124-8
(10)
Wound healing activity of Abroma augusta in Wistar rats /Shanbhag T, Dattachaudhuri A, Shenoy S, Bairy K L. / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 2009 Vol. 2 No. 4 pp. 6-10 / http://www.apjtm.net
(11)
In vitro prevention of chick pancreatic lipase activity by Abroma augusta extract / Nidhi Gupta, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Nishikant Jatav, Divya Bansal, Nazneen Dubey / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2012 |2(2), Supplement S712-S715
(12)
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Abroma augusta Lnn. leaves extract
/ FK Saikot, Alam Khan, MF Hasan* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012), S1418-S1422
(13)
In vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract of Fresh Leaves of Abroma augusta L on the Diffusion of Glucose
/ Md Tariqul Islam, Md Ajijur Rahman, Md Anwar-Ul Islam / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 16, No 1 (2013)
(14)
Abroma augusta / Synonyms / The Plant List
(15)
Abroma augusta L. (Malvaceae) leaf extract attenuates diabetes induced nephropathy and cardiomyopathy via inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response / Ritu Khanra, Saikat Dewanjee, Tarun K Dua, Ranabir Sahu, Moumita Gangopadhyay, Vincenzo De Feo and Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq / J Transl Med. 2015; 13: 6. / doi: 10.1186/s12967-014-0364-1
(16)
Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetes rats.
/ Halim EM / Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Jun;41(6):636-40.
(17)
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Fresh Leaves of Abroma augusta L. on Oral Absorption of Glucose and Metformin Hydrochloride in Experimental Rats / Tariqul Islam, Ajijur Rahman, and Anwar Ul Islam / ISRN Pharmaceutics, Volume 2012 (2012) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/472586
(18)
Structural studies of a mucilage from Abroma augusta root bark / Nilufar Nahar, Balai K. Hazra, M. Mosihuzzaman, M. Mahbubur Rahman / Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 24, Issue 4, 1994, Pages 277-280
(19)
IN VITRO THROMBOLYTIC AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY STUDY OF ABROMA AUGUSTA (ULATKAMBAL) / Md. Abdul Motaleb Bhuiya et al / The Experiment, 2013 Vol. 14(2), 888-893
(20)
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Abroma Augusta Linn. / N. Geetha*, Dr. S. Anitha and Dr. S. Shashidhara / RGUHS J Pharm Sci, Vol 3, Issue 3, Jul-Sept 2013
(21)
Chemical Composition of Abroma augusta Linn. Seed Oil
/ Waqar Ahmad, Taous Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Zafar Iqbal, Mansoor Ahmad, Qasim Jan and Muhammad Arfan / Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 6(12): 1033-1034, 2003
(22)
COX and LOX inhibitory potential of Abroma augusta and Desmodium gangeticum /
Rekha Bisht*, S. Bhattacharya, Yusuf Ali Jaliwala / Journal of Phytopharmacology (2014); 3(3): 168-175
(23)
Analgesic activity of the hexane extract fraction from the Abroma augusta Linn. seed in mice / Sineenat Kuadkaew, Wibool Ridtitid, Malinee Wongnawa, Wantana Reanmongkol / Thai J Pharmacol Vol. 32, No.1, 2010
(24)
Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction / AApplied Nanoscience, 2015 / DOI: 10.1007/s13204-014-0384-4
(25)
ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF ABROMA AUGUSTA LINN / SUTAPA DAS, RANA DATTA AND SUBHANGKAR NANDY / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2011.
(26)
Search for antifertility agents from indigenous medicinal plants. / Pakrashi A; Basak B; Mookerji N / Indian Journal of Medical Research. March 1975; 63(3):378-381.
(27)
REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF ABROMA AUGUSTA EXTRACTS AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST) ADULTS / Omar Ali Mondal, Jahurul Haque, Esarul Haque, Ataur Rahman Khan / J. bio-sci. 20: 49-55, 2012 ISSN 1023-8654
(28)
HPTLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF STIGMASTEROL AND Β-SITOSTEROL IN ABROMA AUGUSTA LINN. ROOTS AND ITS IN VITRO BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY SCREENING /
Jayaprakasam R*., Philip N., Vinod S., Jacob L., Thengungal K. R. / Indian Drugs (2015): Vol 52, Issue 2 pp 12-19
(29)
Antidiabetic plants used by Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes, India / D.R. Chhetri, P. Parajuli, G.C. Subba / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 99 (2005) 199–202
(30)
Ethno-Gynecological Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by Santals of Joypurhat District, Bangladesh / A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman / Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2014 2 (1), pp 10-13. / DOI: 10.12691/bb-2-1-2

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