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Family Ulmaceae / Cannabaceae
Anabiong
Hanadiong
Trema orientalis Blume
PIGEON WOOD

Yi se shan huang ma

Scientific names Common names
Celtis commersonii Brogn. Agandang (Ibn.)
Celtis discolor Brogn. Alindagon (Sul.)
Celtis glomerata Hochst. Anabiong (Bis., Tag.)
Celtis guineensis Schumach. & Thonn. Anadung (Bon.)
Celtis madagascariensis Bojer Anagdung (P. Bis.)
Celtis orientalis Linn. Anagum (Bik.)
Colubrina leschenaultii (DC.) G.Don Anariong (Iv.)
Sponia andaresa Commerson ex Lamarck Anadung (Bon.)
Sponia argentea Planch. Anarong (Sbl.)  
Sponia commersonii Decaisne ex Planchon Anaduiong (Buk.)  
Sponia glorerata Hochst. Arandon (Ilk.) 
Sponia guineensis (Schumach. & Thonn.) Planch Du-ung (Sul.) 
Sponia orientais (L.) Decne. Hagod (Tag.) 
Sponia wightii Planch. Hanadiong (Tag.) 
Trema africana Blume Hanadgong (Bik., S. L. Bis.)
Trema commersonii (Decaisne ex Planchon) Blume Hanagdon (Tag.)
Trema grevel Baill. Hanagdong (Tag.)
Trema grisea Baker Hanarion (Tag.)
Trema guineensis (Schum. & Thonn.) Ficalho Hinagdung (Tag.)
Trema hochstetteri Engl. Hinlalaong (Pamp.)
Trema nitens Blume Hubulos (Bon.)
Trema orientalis Blume Inandong (Tag.)
Trema polygama Z.M.Wu & J.Y.Lin Indai luging (Lan.)
Trema wightii Blume Inugdon (Tag., Bis.)
  Lagod (Tag.)
  Lamai (Ilk.)
  Langong (Sub.)
  Malarurung (Tag.)
  Malarurang (Tag.)
  Malasiking durong (Pamp.)
  Mandalogon (Bag.)
  Nagdon (P. Bis.)
  Pangarandongen (Ilk.)
  Pañgaranduñgin (Ilk.)
  Pitidan (Ig.)
  Pitikan (Ig.)
  Tatagtag (P. Bis.)
  Charcoal tree (Engl.)
  Gunpowder tree (Engl.)
  Indian charcoal tree (Engl.)
  Indian nettle tree (Engl.)
  Pigeon wood (Engl.)
  Oriental trema (Engl.)
Anabiong is a local name shared by (1) Artocarpus rubrovenia, kalulot, and (2) Tremna orientalis, hanadiong.
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BEMBA: Mutumpu.
BENGALI: Chickan, Chikan, Jiban, Jibon
CHINESE: Yi se shan huang ma
HINDI: Gio.
INDONESIAN: Aanggerung, Kuray, Lenggung.
JAPANESE: Urajiro enoki.
JAVANESE: Anggerung.
KENYA: Muhethu, Poponet, Musakala.
KHMER: Srô:l.
LAO: Po, Hu.
MALAY: Menarong, Mengkirai, Randagong.
NIGERIA: Afere.
SANSKRIT: Jivanti.
SRI LANKAN: Gedumba.
SWAHILI: Mgendagenda, Mpesi, Msasa, Mzunguzungu.
TAMIL: Ambaratthi, Chenkolam, Oma, Oman.
THAI: Padang Po-haek, Takhai.
TONGAN: Mululwe.
VIETNAMESE: Hu dai, Hu l[as] nh[or], Hu las nhor.
YORUBA: Afefe,

Etymology
Trema derives from the Greek word for hole, alluding to the pitted seeds. Orientalis is Latin for orient.

Botany
Anabiong is a small tree, 5 to 8 meters high, with elongated branches. Leaves are distichous, the upper surface rough; the lower, pale and covered with soft dense hairs, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, with the base frequently unequal, broad and heart-shaped, and the apex long and thinly pointed, and prominently 3-nerved with finely toothed margins. Cymes are dense, hairy, 1 to 2.5 centimeters long. White flowers are numerous, about 3 millimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, about 3.5 centimeters long.

Distribution
- In deserted clearings, thickets, and second-growth forests, often abundant, and found throughout the Philippines, at low and medium altitudes, in some places ascending to 2,000 meters.
- Also occurs in India to southern China and southward to northeastern Australia and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Bark contains a little tannin.
- Study isolated three new compounds (dihydrophenanthrenes and phenyldihydroisocoumarin) from the extracts of trunk bark and root bark.
- Study yielded the presence of tannins and phenolic compounds, fixed oils, fats, phytosterols, and flavonoids.
- Study yielded 8 compounds: ampelopsin F, (-) epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (+) syringaresinol, cinnamic acid among others.

- Study of extracts of trunk and root barks isolated 16 compounds, among them Methylswertianin, decussatin, glycosides of decussatin, sweroside, scopoletin, (-)- epicatechin, lupeol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy- benzoic acid, adian-5-en-3-one, 2a, 3a, 23-trihydroxyurs- 12-en-28-oic acid, 2a, 3b-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, b-sitosterol, 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl-b-sitosterol and hexa- cosanoic acid. (1)
- Study isolated from stem-bark of TO a new pentacyclic triterpenoid alcohol, trematol. (3)
- Phytochemical screening of powdered sample of plant yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. Proximate analysis yielded crude protein 4.20 ±1.00%, crude fiber 13.00 ±1.00%, ether extract 12.00 ±10.00%, ash 8.00 ±1.00%, dry matter 89.00 ±10.00%. (22 )

Properties
- Studies have shown antibacterial, glucose-lowering, anticonvulsive, , analgesic, anti-inflammatry, iron- chelating properties.

Parts used
Bark, wood.

Uses
Edibility
• Leaves and fruit reported eaten in African countries.
• Young leaves eaten as spinach by the Zulus.
Folkloric
• In the Philippines, juice obtained from macerating the soft wood is used for poulticing swellings.
• Fruit, leaves, bark, stems, twigs and seeds are used in traditional East and West Africa, Tanzania and Madagascar medicine.
• Leaves and bark used to treat cough, asthma, bronchitis, toothache, sore throat. Also used for gonorrhea, yellow fever, and as antidote to poisoning.
• Bark infusion used for dysentery.
• Stem bark used as vermifuge.
• Decoction of leaves mixed with leaves of Bidens pilosa, Citrus aurantifolia and peels of unripe pineapple used for jaundice. Macerated leaves in lemon juice used for cough. Leaf decoction used as anthelmintic for roundworm and hookworm. (17)
• In Cote-d'Ivoire, leaf decoction used for hypertension.
• In southwest Nigeria, bark used as hematinic. Decoction of a mixture of T. orientalis bark, X. aethiopica fruits, T. alnifolia bark , and H. madagascariensis bark drunk twice daily for anemia.
• Zulus use the roots and bark as traditional medicine.
Others
- Rope: The bast used in making string or rope.
- Craft: The wood which is soft is used in making wooden shoes. Light wood used for making fruit boxes.
- Dye: The bark tannin used in roughening and coloring fishing lines.
- Veterinary:
Leaf decoction used to deworm dogs.
- Fodder:
Leaves, pods, and seeds used as fodder. In the Philippines, fed to cattle, goats, and water buffalo. High fiber content and toxins limit the use of leaf meal in feeds—the limitation can be overcome by extracting protein from the leaves. (1
9)
- Fuel:
Coppices to provide for firewood and charcoal. (1
9)
- Fiber: Appropriate for paper and pulp production. Paper has good tensile strength and folding endurance. (1
9)


Studies

Ethnobotanical Study / Blood Pressure Lowering:
Trema orientalis was one of 33 species of plants used for treatment of hypertension. Used as a leaf decoction, its effect was attributed to polyphenols, potassium retention and the promotion of diuresis. (4)
Anti-Convulsive Effect:
Study of a methanol extract from dried leaves showed anticonvulsive activity on tonic flexion and tonic extension. (6)
Glucose-Lowering: Study was done on the glucose-lowering effect of the aqueous stem bark extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed T. orientalis stem bark extract significantly reduces blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats by a mechanism different from the of sulfonylurea agents. (7)
Chromium and Nickel Tolerance: Callus from contaminated and uncontaminated sources of Trema orientalis were tested in vitro for tolerance to chromium and nickel. Results showed seeds from contaminated sites were tolerant to chromium and nickel, suggesting a potential for use in sustainable revegetation programmes on chromiferous mine wastes. (9)
Antibacterial / Bark Extracts: Study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of aqueous bark extracts of T. orientalis on six selected bacterial strains. Results showed the selected bacterial strains were highly susceptible to the test materials, and corroborates its application in traditional medicine. (10)
Reinforcement of Jute Pulp with Trema Orientalis Pulp: The addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. The pulp blends showed increased sheet density. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp increased with beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis increased. (1
1)
Iron Chelating / Antiradical Activity / Leaves: A methanol soluble fraction extracted from leaves showed antiradical activity of 69.73% on a DPPH assay, almost similar to ascorbic acid. Iron chelating activity was 40.74%. The results suggest a potential for processing industries and a good source for an iron chelator. (1
2)
Black Powder for Blasting and Fireworks Purposes: Study of generated flames exhibited characteristics of black powder used for blasting purposes. The flames from ignition of black powder of Trema orientalis were comparable to that of foreign black powder. Results showed a potential for use of T. orientalis black powder for blasting in dimensional stone quarries, sporting and fireworks uses. (1
3)
Anti-Sickling Powder for Blasting and Fireworks Purposes: Study evaluated the effect of anthocyanins extracts from T. orientalis on sickle cells. The anthocyanin extracts exhibited antisickling activity, possible through interference with intracellular polymerization of HbS or scavenging of free radicals preventing erythrocyte sickling or hemolysis. (1
4)
Safety / Genotoxicity Testing: Study evaluated the safety of five plants widely distributed in Africa. Using bacterial reverse mutation, T. orientalis was one of four that showed negative results, suggesting potential safety of the plants for use as supplements in high doses. (1
5)
Laxative Effect: Aqueous extract was shown to have a laxative effect, inducing stimulation of rabbit duodenum contractility. Also, an aqueous extract exerted cholinimimetic and anticholinesterase effects. (17)
Mosquito Larvicidal Potential: In a study of four plants for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, a crude extract of Trema orientalis showed an LC50 2.95%. (18)
Analgesic / Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the potential analgesic and anti-diarrheal activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves in experimental acetic acid induced writhing and castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. The aqueous extract showed significant (p<0.001) analgesic effect. In anti-diarrheal screening, both extracts increased latent period (p<0.025) and decreased the number of stools (p<0.025) comparable to standard loperamide. (
20)
In Vitro Thrombolysis / Clot Lysis Effect: Study evaluated the clot lysis effect of crude extracts of five Bangladesh plants viz., Trema orientalis, B. monnieri, C. frutescens, B. oleracea and U. sinuata in an invitro thrombolytic model using streptokinase as positive control. Chloroform fractions showed the highest clot lysis activity with T. orientalis at 46.44 ± 2.44%, compared to streptokinase at 80.77 ±1.12%. (
21)
Antioxidant / Phenol Content: In a study of Ivory Coast medicinal plants, Trema orientalis showed the highest total phenol content (240.73 ±47.31 mgGAE/g). The extract showed dose dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening yielded steroids and polyterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, lucoanthocyanins, gallic, catechins, quinones, coumarins, cardiotonic glycoside, saponins.

(23)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extract of leaves for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Results showed strong antioxidant activity by DPPH assay with methanol extract IC50 of 110.25 µg/mL. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity at low concentrations. (
24)
Antitrypanosomal / Leaves: In an in vitro antitrypanosomal study of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species, Trema orientalis was one of the species that showed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity with high selectivity for trypanosomes. (
25)

Availability
Wildcrafted.


Last Update June 2016


Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: CLOSE UP / Trema orientalis (Pigeon Wood) / File:Trema orientalis (Pigeon Wood) W2 IMG 2236.jpg / / J M Garg / 28.09.09 / GNU Free Documentaion License / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Xanthones and Other Constituents of Trema orientalis / D. Noungou Tchamo et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology • 2001, Vol. 39, No. 3, Pages 202-205
(2)
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TREMA ORIENTALIS / Wen-Lung Kuo et al / J Chin Med 18(1,2): 27-36, 2007 27
(3)
A new triterpenoid alcohol from Trema orientalis / L Ogunkoya et al / Phytochemistry • Volume 16, Issue 10, 1977, Pages 1606-1608 • doi:10.1016/0031-9422(77)84037-5
(4)
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Arterial Hypertension, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou Populations of Agboville (Côte-d’Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffi / European Journal of Scientific Research • ISSN 1450-216X Vol.35 No.1 (2009), pp 85-98
(5)
New Dihydrophenanthrene and Phenyldihydroisocoumarin Constituents of Trema orientalis / M. Genevieve Dijoux-Franca, Diderot Noungoue Tchamo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (6), pp 832–835
DOI: 10.1021/np000275s
(6)
Anti-convulsion activity of leaf of Trema orientalis / Panchal Hiteksha S, Master Stavan M et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 4, 53-55
(7)
Glucose lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Linn) Blume in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats / T Dimo, F T Ngueguim et al / Pharmazie, Vol 61, No 3, March 2006
(8)
Common names / AgroForestryTree Database
(9)
Chromium and nickel tolerance of Trema orientalis (Blume) L. in tissue culture
/ Sanghamitra Samantaray, Gyana Ranjan Rout, Premananda Das / Acta Physiologiae Plantarum1999, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 27-35
(10)
Antibacterial Efficacy of Bark extracts of an Ethnomedicinal plant Trema orientalis Blume / Jayashree Rout*, Albert L. Sajem, Minaram Nath and Mahuya Sengupta / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 31 Oct 2012, Vol 6 No 4.

(11)
REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP / M. Sarwar Jahan, Rawshan Sabina / BioResources 01/2009
(12)
IRON CHELATING AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF KAYU MANIK LEAVES (Trema orientalis) / Salprima Yudha S.*, Eka Angasa1, Sri Ningsih, Syalfinaf Manaf, Suli Anggria Murni, and Fatan Umbara / Indo. J. Chem., 2011, 11 (2), 196 - 199
(13)
SUITABILITY OF CHARCOAL FROM SELECTED TROPICAL PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BLASTING BLACK POWDER / Z.O Opafunso
(14)
Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro
/ P.T. Mpiana, K.N. Ngbolua, V. Mudogo, D.S.T. Tshibangu, E.K. Atibu, D.D. Tshilanda and N.M. Misengabu / Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011, Vol 11, Issue 3, pp 129-137 / DOI: 10.3923/jms.2011.129.137
(15)
Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.
/ Hong CE, Lyu SY. / J. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jan; 36(1): pp87-93
(16)
Trema orientalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(17)
Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses / Michael Buenor Adinortey, Isaac K. Galyuon, and Nicholas Oteng Asamoah / Pharmacogn Rev. 2013 Jan-Jun; 7(13): 67-72 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.112852
(18)
Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India / Anjali Rawani, Anupam Ghosh* & Goutam Chandra / Indian J Med Res 140, July 2014, pp 102-108
(19)
Trema orientalis /
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)
(20)
Analgesic and antidiarrheal activities of Trema orientalis Linn. in mice / Sarder Nasir Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan Uddin and Firoz Ahmed / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2008, 8(2) / DOI 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.2.001
(21)
Effects of organic extracts and their different fractions of five Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis
/ Talha Bin Emran, Atiar Rahman, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Chadny Layzu / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15(128):1-8 · April 2015
(22)
Nutritional Composition of Ten Ethnobotanicals Used for the Treatment of Anaemia in Southwest Nigeria / I. T. Gbadamosi*, J. O. Moody and A. O.Yekini / European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2(2): 140-150, 2012
(23)
Antioxidant activities and estimation of the phenols and flavonoids content in the extracts of medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Ivory Coast / Tuo, Karim; Béourou, Sylvain; Touré, A. Offianan; Ouattara, Karamako; Meité, Souleymane; Ako, Ako Aristide B; Yao, S. Stephane; Koffi, David; Coulibay, Baba; Coulibaly, Adama and Djaman A. Joseph / International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, Volume 4 Number 1 (2015) pp. 862-874
(24)
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Trema orientalis Linn: an indigenous medicinal plant of indian subcontinent / Uddin, Sarder Nasir / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, Vol 8, Issue 4 (2008) pp 395-399 / DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.4.395
(25)
Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine / Oyindamola O. Abiodun, Grace O. Gbotosho, Edith O. Ajaiyeoba, Reto Brun, Ayoade M. Oduola / Parasitology Research
February 2012, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 521-526
(26)

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