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Family Verbenacea

Gmelina philippensis Cham.

Scientific names Common names
Gmelina asiatica var. philippensis (Cham.) Bakh. Alipung (Tag.)
Gmelina finlaysoniana Wall. Alipuñga (Tag.)
Gmelina hystrix Schult. ex Kurz Baga babui (Tag., Bis.)
Gmelina philippensis Cham. Betebet (Pang.)
  Bosel-bosel (Ilk.)
  Kalulut (Pamp.)
  Paniktik (Sbl.)
  Sousou (Ig.)
  Tuloñgan (P. Bis.)
  Asian bushbeech (Engl.)
  Asiatic beechberry (Engl.)
  Hedgehog (Engl.)
  Parrot's beak (Engl.)
  Wild sage (Engl.)
Gmelina philippensis Cham. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Badhara, Korobi.
HINDI: Badhara.

Alipung is an erect, branched, nearly smooth shrub or small tree, 3 to 8 meters high, usually with a few stout spines on the trunk and branches. Leaves are elliptic, 4 to 8 centimeters long, entire, usually rounded or blunt at the apex and pointed at the base, and smooth beneath. Flowers are borne in short, terminal racemes, each subtended by a large, pale-green bract. The calyx is green, about 5 millimeters long. Corolla is yellow, about 4 centimeters long. Fruit is fleshy, smooth, yellow, pear-shaped, about 2 centimeters long.

- Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Panay.
- Indigenous to India and Southeast Asia, including the Philippines.

- Study yielded six new iridoids from aerial parts of G. philippensis viz., 6-O-alpha-L-(2"-O-, 3"-O-, 4"-O-tribenzoyl) rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, 6-O-alpha-L-(2"-O-, 3"-O-dibenzoyl, 4"-O-cis-p-coumaroyl) rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, 6-O-alpha-L-(2"-O-, 3"-O-dibenzoyl, 4"-O-trans-p-coumaroyl) rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, 6-O-alpha-L-(2"-O-benzoyl, 3"-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, 6-O-alpha-L-(2"-O-, 3"-O-dibenzoyl)rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, and gmephiloside, together with five known monoacyl and diacyl rhamnopyranosylcatalpol derivatives. (7)

- Studies suggest antipyretic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, thrombolytic properties.

Parts utilized
Fruit, roots.

• Juice of fruit applied to portions of the feet affected by alipuñga (athlete's foot) and various forms of eczema.
• Fruit of juice is also considered an "anti-limatik" (a species of leech of the genus Haemadipsa).
• Fruit poultice pounded with lime, applied to the throat, for coughs.
• Mixture of the fruit with lime and garlic vigorously applied to the body in cases of dropsy.
• Fruit pounded with lime, applied as poultice to the throat for coughs.
• In India, traditionally used for diabetes. Also, used for dandruff - fruit juice applied every three days in the morning externally on the scalp.

Antipyretic: Study of eight Pakistani medicinal plants showed Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity. (1)
Antimicrobial: C. viscosa and G. asiatica were tested for antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extracts of the roots of G asiatica exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, esp against E coli, P vulgaris and P aeruginosa. (2) In a study of five medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity, a crude methanol extract of Gmelina philippensis exhibited 18.0 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus. (10)
Antimicrobial: Study showed the aqueous extract to be active against P. pseduoalcaligenes, while the methanol extract could inhibit B subtilis. (3) In a study of antimicrobial activity of five medicinal plants, a crude extract of G. philippensis showed 18.0 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus. (5)
• Antioxidant / Leaves and Flowers: Study evaluated crude methanol extract and partitionates of leaves and flowers of G. philippensis for antioxidant activity using various assays. Total phenolic content was 1.354 to 10.179 mg BAE/g with DPPH IC50 of 9.75 to 32.25 µg/ml. The variance depended on the solvent used to fractionate the crude extracts. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of leaves extract exhibited the highest amount of phenolic acid. Toxicity on brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed an LC50 of 0.902 to 0.487 µg/ml. (8)
• Thrombolytic: Study evaluated methanol extracts and their pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates of O. mungos, M. macrophylla, Gmelina philippensis and S. nodiflora for membrane stabilizing and thrombolytic activities. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of G. philippensis showed 49.05% and 21.25% inhibition of hypotonic and heat induced hemolysis of RBC, respectively, with acetyl salycylic acid as reference standard. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of G. philippensis showed thrombolytic activity with clot lysis value of 47.14%, with streptokinase and water as positive and negative controls with 65.00% and 3.84% lysis of clot, respectively. (9)


Updated January 2020 / May 2016 / April 2012

IMAGE SOURCE / Photo / Gmelina philippensis (Parrot's Beak) / © 2014 Richard Lyons' Nursery / click on photo to go to source page / rarefloweringtrees.com
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Photo / Gmelina asiatica / J.M.Garg / CC by SA 4.0 / click on photo to go to source page / WIKIMEDIA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II / M Ikram et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 19, Issue 2, March-April 1987, Pages 185-192 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(87)90040-7
Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Cleome viscosa and Gmelina asiatica / Sudhakar M et al / Fitoterapia. 2006 Jan;77(1):47-9. Epub 2005 Dec 1.
Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity / Jigna Parekh et al / Turk J Biol, 29 (2005) 203-210
Antimicrobial Activity of five medicinal plants of Bangladesh / Sharmin Reza Chowdhury *, Shahana Akter, Tasnuva Sharmin, Farhana Islam Tasdique Mohammad Quadery / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2013; Vol 2, No 1
Gmelina philippensis Cham. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Iridoid glycosides from Gmelina philippensis. / Helfrich E , Rimpler H / Phytochemistry, 2000, 54(2): pp 191-199 / DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00060-1
In vitro antioxidant, total phenolic content and preliminary toxicity studies of Gmelina philippensis chem / Sharmin Reza Chowdhury*, Farhana Islam,Tasdique Mohammad Quadery, Mahbubul Hoque Shihan and Mohammad A. Rashid / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol 6, No 1, March 2012; Pp 855-859 / DOI: 10.5897/AJPP11.891 
In Vitro Membrane Stabilizing and Thrombolytic Activities of Ophirrhiza mungos, Mussaenda macrophylla, Gmelina philippensis and Synedrella nodiflora Growing in Bangladesh / Farhana Islam, Sharmin Reza Choudhury, Tasnuva Sharmin et al / DOI: 10.6000/1927-5951.2013.03.01.8
Antimicrobial Activity of five medicinal plants of Bangladesh / Sharmin Reza Chowdhury, Shahana Akter, Tasnuva Sharmin et al / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemsitry, 2013; 2(1): pp 164-170


It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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