Acacia is a large umbraculiform tree
growing to a height of 20 to 25 meters. Bark is rough and furrowed. Branches are widespread. Leaves are evenly bipinnate and hairy underneath. Pinnae are 8 to 12 and 15 centimeters long or less. Leaflets are 12 to 16 in the upper pinnae, 6 to 10 in the lower ones, decreasing in size downward, hairy beneath, with the mid-nerve diagonal, and oblong-rhomboid, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, borne in dense, peduncled, axillary, solitary, fascicled heads. Fruits are pods, straight, somewhat fleshy, indehiscent, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 2 centimeters wide, with
a pulpy sweet mesocarp.
- Throughout the Philippines
in waste places along roads and trails in fallow, rice paddies,
- Widely planted as a shade tree and avenue tree.
- In some places, spontaneous.
- Introduced here about 1860 from tropical America.
- Now pantropic in cultivation.
· Saponin-like alkaloid
pithecolobin has been isolated from the bark and the seed.
· Alkaloids are said to be abundant in the bark, stems,
leaves, and seeds.
· Leaves and stems have saponin and tannin; gum from the trunk.
· Pods are rich in starch and sugar, with a fair proportion of albuminoid substances.
· Bark has no tannin. Trunk yields an inferior gum.
· Study of n-hexane fraction of methanolic extract of whole plant yielded two compounds: lupeol and epilupeol.
· Proximate analysis of browse leaves on Dry Weight Basis showed moisture 61.95 ± 0.56%, crude protein 23.42 ±0.31%, ether extract 2.80 ± 0.08%, crude fiber 28.73 ± 0.19%, ash 5.69 ± 0.01%, Nitrogen Free Extract 39.73 ± 0.52%, energy 1154.15 ± 0.13 Kj/kg. (31)
· Study on mineral content of browse leaves (mg/100g on dry weight basis) yielded Ca 780 ± 6.00, magnesium 185.20 ± 0.80, potassium 1454.00 ± 5.00, iron 23.95 ± 0.05, zinc 1.51 ± 0.01. (31
- Phytochemical screening of flower extract and fractionates yielded flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, phenols, and glycosides, with absence of alkaloids, phlobatannins, sterols, quinones, and oxalates. (35)
- HPTLC and GC-MS analysis yielded six
compounds from the methanolic fraction of Samanea saman: (1) 9,Octadecenoic acid (Z) methyl ester, (2) Dodecanoic acid, 10-methyl, methyl ester, (3) 13- Hexyloxyacylotridec-10-en-2-one, (4) 15- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (5) Diethyl -1- (8 –amino -1- naphthyl) -1,2,3 triazole -4,5 –dicarboxylate, and (6) N.N – [1,4 –butanediyl bis [ ethylimino] -3,1 propane diyl] bis[ N-ethyl acetamide]- RT 24.1. (40)
- Proximate composition (%) pf seeds pf Albizia saman yielded: crude fat 9.77±1.21, crude protein 39.40±0.30, crude fiber 3.21±0.10, ash 2.10±0.40, moisture 4,20±0.11, and carbohydrate 41.32±0.50.
- Slightly acidic tasting, cooling.
- Antipyretic, antimicrobial, stomachic, astringent, antidermatoses, laxative, antimalarial, sedative.
- Studies have suggest
antimicrobial, antitubercular, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-termite, anti-ulcer, larvicidal, insecticidal, anthelmintic, antiemetic, analgesic, nephroprotective properties.
· Entire plant.
· Collect from May to October.
· Rinse and sun-dry.
- Mesocarp of the fruit is sweetish, sometimes eaten by children.
· In the Philippines, a decoction of the inner bark or fresh cambium and leaves is
used to treat diarrhea.
· Acute bacillary dysentery,
enteritis, diarrhea: use 15 to 30 gms dried material in decoction.
· Also for colds, sore throat, headache.
· A decoction of the inner bark or fresh cambium and leaves is
used to treat diarrhea.
· Anaphylactic dermatitis, eczema, skin pruritus: use decoction
of fresh material and apply as external wash.
· Latex used as gum arabic for gluing.
· Seeds chewed for sore throat; inner bark decoction and fresh leaves used for colds and diarrhea.
· In Pakistan infusion of leaves used as laxative. Decoction of inner bark used for diarrhea, colds, and intestinal ailments.
· In Jamaica leaf infusion used for treating blood pressure.
· In Tropical Africa seeds are chewed for treating gum and throat inflammations.
· In Venezuela rain tree is a traditional remedy for colds, diarrhea, headache, intestinal
ailments and stomach ache. Root decoction used as hot bath in stomach cancer.
· Root decoction used in hot baths for stomach cancer.
· In the West Indies,
the leaf infusion is used as a laxative and seeds chewed for sore throat.
· The alcoholic extract of leaves used for tuberculosis.
· In Columbia,
the fruit decoction is used as a sedative.
- Wood: Valued for its shade. Popularly used in carving, making tables, wood basins and bowls. Hats are made from the shavings of the wood.
- Fodder: Seasonally copious pods with sweet pulp that can be grounded
and converted to fodder and alcohol as an energy source. It is a valuable source of feed for cattle and horses. It is also
an important honey plant like most mimosaceous trees.
- High sugar content of the pod can be utilized for producing alcohol by fermentation.
- Fuel: The wood produces 5200-5600 kcal/kg. It vigorous regrowth after lopping or pollarding makes it a valuable source of high quality firewood and charcoal. However, its value as fuel is secondary to its use for furniture making and carvings. (39)
- Gum/resin: The bark is an abundant source of gum and resin. (39)
• Preliminary phytochemical screening
and antimicrobial activity of Samanea saman: A study
of the aqueous plant extract on three organisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
aureus and Candida albicans) showed inhibitory activity against all
the tested organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed tannins, flavanoids,
saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids. The study validates
the use of the plant in traditional medicine. (1)
A methanol extract from leaves showed a highly significant antibacterial
activity in vitro for Xanthomonas pathovars and for human pathogenic
• Larvicidal: Of 112 medicinal plant species collected in Thailand, Samanea saman (stem bark) was one of 14 plants that exhibited high toxicity to the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti in preliminary screening. (4)
(1) Several extracts of Samanea saman showed the highest antioxidant potential in both DPPH and reducing power assay. (2) Study showed a methanolic extract to have radical scavenging activity with values higher than ascorbic acid. Phytochemicals yielded carbohydrates, phytosterols, saponin, phenolic compounds, and tannin. (5)
Study of ethanolic extracts of seeds and bark of Acacia collected from the Laurel Farm in Lipa city yielded saponins, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents - glycosides, carbohydrates. Results showed termite killing activity comparable to solignum. (6)
• Anti-Ulcer / Bark:
Study of bark extract in albino rats showed significant dose-dependent antiulcer activity comparable to standard drugs. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. (9)
• Toxicity and Tolerance to Metals:
Increased concentration of different metals significantly reduced germination which was more prominent for Pb and Cd as compared to Cu and Zn. (12)
• Bioactivity Analysis: Bioactivity analysis assays on hexane (HE) and methanol (ME) extract of leaves showed: (1) Both had moderate bacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (2) HE antifungal activity against Fusarium solani, ME against Trichophyton longifusus (3) Cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality assay (4) HE Insecticidal activity against R. dominica and T. granarium.
• Antimicrobial / Phytochemical Screening:
Study of various extracts for antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Only the methanol extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Various extracts showed varying amounts of alkaloids, saponins and resins, with an absence of acidic compounds. Flavonoids were moderately present in the ethyl acetate extract. Findings suggest the use of S. saman pods in ethno-medication. (13)
• Pods / Tannins / Antimicrobial / Tea: Screening of n-hexane extract of pods showed a moderate presence of secondary metabolites. Pods yielded the characteristic reddish brown solid tannins, which on analysis showed to be the condensed (catechol) type. Tannin components were cyanidin, catechin, epicachin, anthocyanin monoglycones, delphinidine and malidin. Tannins in the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antimicrobial activity, including C. albicans. Results suggest the ground pods could be a significant source of natural antimicrobials and antifungals that can be used in the formulation of a novel tannin/energy rich nutraceutical tea. (14)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study bark extracts showed good antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of chloroform and hexane soluble fractions and antimicrobial activity of carbon tetrachloride fraction. (16)
• In vitro Anthelmintic Activity: Study of alcohol and aqueous extracts of the bark of S. saman was tested against Pheretima posthuma. Results showed anthelmintic activity in the same concentration as albendazole. (17)
• Insecticidal Activity: Study on insecticidal activity showed the hexane extract with 50% mortality against Rhyzopeertha dominica and Tribolium granarium. (18)
• Antiemetic Activity: A methanolic extract of leaves showed 76.41% inhibition of emesis measured as reduction in number of retches in chicks. Chlorpromazine decreased the retches by 33.97%. (19)
• Antimicrobial / Spermine Alkaloids / Sick Buildings Microbes: Study of an 80% methanolic extract of Samanea saman leaves yielded two known macrocyclic spermine alkaloids, pithecolobines 1 and 2. Results showed the isolated compounds, especially pithecolobine 2, might a potential plant-based formulation for management of microbes in sick enclosed buildings. (20)
• Antioxidant / Organprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the polyphenol and flavonoidal contents and organprotective effects of leaves of Samanea saman. Results showed concentration dependent in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities in all test models. Study also showed a 70% alcoholic extract of leaves possess hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and gastroprotective activities attributed to the plant polyphenolic compounds—flavonoids and tannins. (21)
• Alkaloids / Bark / Antibacterial: Study showed the bark of Samanea saman to contain a high yield of alkaloid. The crude extracts and alkaloid-rich fraction exhibited complete inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. (22)
• Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic effects of methanol extract of leaves of Samanea saman and Prosopis cineraria using a tail immersion test. Both extracts showed significant analgesic effects when compared with pethidine. (23)
• Antiemetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiemetic activity of methanol extracts of five leguminous plants. All the extracts showed antiemetic activity, (24)
• Pods as Boiler Feed: Samanea saman is a good source of protein and energy. The pod meal contains a about 13.75% protein, 89.25 to 1.175% dry matter, 2.98 to 1.63 ether extract, 2.19 to 14.54% crude fiber, 0.23 to 3.27% ash and 6.44 to 55.67% nitrogen extract. Leaves and pods can be tapped as sources of feeds for ruminants during drought periods when feeds are scarce. (25)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated methanolic leaf extract of S. saman for potential anti-diabetic activity by in- vitro α-amylase inhibition and in-vivo epinephrine induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood sugar levels with significant inhibition of α-amylase. (26) Study evaluated hydroalcoholic extracts of leaf and bark of A. saman for hypoglycemic effects. In vitro inhibitory assays of the plant extracts using alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and glucose diffusion inhibition assays were done to evaluate for any significant anti-diabetic effect. The plant leaf and bark showed promising therapeutic activity for maintenance of diabetes mellitus. (38)
• Pithecolobine / Antimycobacterial / Leaves: A bioactive compound, pithecolobine isolated from the fraction of ethyl acetate:methanol (80:20) showed remarkable antimycobacterial activity. (27)
• Nephroprotective / Polyphenols / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study investigated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves for its protective effects on paracetamol induced renal damage in rats. Extract of leaves improved all the induced changes in physical, tissue and blood parameters, together with significant reversal of elevated LPO and reduced tissue GSH level. Results were attributed to the presence of antioxidant principles. (28)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity: Study investigated various extracts and fractions of crude fractions for antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality. The carbon tetrachloride soluble partitionate of the methanol extract exhibited mild to moderate antimicrobial activity (Shigella dysenteriae, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus) and carbon tetrachloride and dichlormethane soluble fractions strong cytotoxicity with LC50 of 0.831 µg/m by brine shrimp lethality assay. (30)
• Biosorbent for Lead: Study showed Albizia saman leaf powders can be used as an effective natural biosorbent for economic treatment of aqueous solutions containing lead. (33)
• Pithecolobine / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Pithecologine isolated from alkaloid extract of Albizia saman showed antimicrobial activity against seven human pathogenic bacterial and two yeasts with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values of 1.9-125 µg mL-1. It also showed antioxidant activity with IC50 of 250 µg mL. (34)
• Inhibitory Effect of Alkaloids on Growth and Fumonisin B Production / Pithecolobine: Study evaluated the antifungal and antifumonisin activities of budmunchiamine A and pithecologine against Fusarium verticillioides. Budmunchiamine A was isolated from A. amara and pithecolobine from Albizia saman. Results showed both significantly inhibited the growth and fumonism B1 production by F. verticillioides in a dose dependent manner. Findings suggest potential as alternative agents to control fungal and mycotoxin contaminations in food grains. (36)
• Pithecolobine / Antitubercular / Anticancer: Study of methanol extract of leaves of Samanea saman yielded the presence of pithecolobine. The compound showed remarkable activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was also effective against lung cancer associated with tuberculosis. Docking studies of pithecolobine against target proteins Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) and Decaprenylphospho-beta-D0ribofuranose 2-oxidase (DprE1) reveals the compound pithecolobine is a potential drug candidate for tuberculosis. (37)
• Anticancer / Flowers: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activity of Albizia saman flower extract on MCF-7 cell line (human breast cancer cell line). Results showed the ethanolic extract of A. saman flower has moderate anticancer activity with 94.72% growth inhibition at 200 µg/ml. IC value was 120.1 µg/ml and the regression value was 0.999. (42)