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Family Bignoniaceae
Yellow bell

Stenolobium stans (Linn.) D. Don
YELLOW TRUMPET BUSH

Scientific names Common names 
Bignonia stans Linn. Yellow bell (Engl.) 
Bignonia frutescens Linn. Yellow bignonia (Engl.)
Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth Yellow elder (Engl.)
  Yellow trumpet bush (Engl.) 
  Trumpet flower (Engl.)
• In the Philippines, the "yellow flower" is source of great confusion, especially when it refers to the "yellow bell" and "kampanilya." Kampanilya is a shared common between two species of plant: (1) Thevetia peruviana, campanilla, campanero and (2) Allamanda cathartica, campanilla, kampanero, goldfen trumpet.
•"Yellow bell" is a shared common name by (1) Allamanda cathartica (2) Allamanda neriifolia, and (3) Tecoma stans.

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Geelklokkies.
BENGALI: Candraprabhā.
CZECH: Protiha vzpřímená.
DUTCH: Gele bignonia.
FRENCH: Bignone jaune, Bignone stans, Bignonia jaune, Bois à enivrer, Bois Caraïbe, Bois pissenlit, Chevalier, Copete, Fleur de saint Pierre, Fresnillo, Herbe de saint Nicolas, Trompette d'or.
GERMAN: Eschenblättrige Jasmintrompete, Gelbe Trompetenblume.
GREEK: Louloúdia, Louloúdi vignónia.
ITALIAN: Bignonia gialla.
HINDI: Piliya
JAPANESE: Kinreiju, Kinreiju, Tekoma sutansu.
KANNADA: Koranekelar.
MARATHI: Ghanti ful
PERSIAN: Tikuma al stans.
PORTUGUESE: Amarelinho, Bignonia-amarela, Guarã-guarã, Ipê-amarelo-de-jardim, Ipê-de-jardim, Ipê-mirim, Ipezinho-de-jardim, Sinos-amarelos.
POLISH: Tekoma prosta.
RUSSIAN: Tekoma priamostoiachaia.
SPANISH: Bignonia amarilla, Chanté, Guaranguay amarillo, Palo amarillo, Roble amarlllo, Saúco amarillo, Saúco de jardín, Trompeta de oro, Tronadora.
SWEDISH: Gul trumpetbuske.
THAI: Tong u rai.

Botany
Yellow bell is an erect, branched, sparingly hairy or nearly smooth shrub, about 2 to 4 meters in height. Leaves are opposite, odd-pinnate, and up to 20 centimeters in length, with 5 or 7 leaflets. Leaflets are lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 13 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Flowers are yellow, faintly scented, borne in short, dense, terminal clusters. Calyx is green, 5 to 7 millimeters long and 5-toothed. The capsules are linear, compressed, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 millimeters wide, pointed and hanging from the branches. Seeds are numerous, less than 2 centimeters long, 7 millimeters wide and furnished with a transparent wing.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in cultivation, although scarcely naturalized in the Philippines.
- Native of tropical America.
- Planted as an ornamental throughout the tropics and subtropics.

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis yielded tannin, flavonoids, phenol, alkaloids, steroids, anthraquinones and saponins in all solvent extracts.
- Isolated from the seed kernels: water, fixed oil, ash, tannin, resin, a bitter principle and a tannoid. From the leaves, water, ash, fat, resin and resinic acid. From the bark, water, ash, curnarin, a little fat, resin.

- Plant yields monoterpene alkaloids.
- Air-dried flowers yielded a new fatty acid cinnamate ester and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol in a ratio of 1:1.
- In India, a foliage study yielded 17% crude protein, 6% ash, 18% fat, 25% fiber, and 14% total polyphenols.

Properties
Considered diuretic, tonic, anti-syphilitic, and vermifuge.

Parts utilized
Entire plant.

Uses
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Roots are reported to be diuretic, tonic, anti-syphilitic and vermifuge.
- In Veracruz, decoction of flowers and bark are used for stomach pains.
- In some parts of Mexico and in central and south America, the plant is used in the treatment of diabetes.
Others
In Guadalajara, roots used for making beer.

Studies
Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity: Screening of 20 extracts from different parts of 10 Malaysian plants belong to 4 families showed the methanol extract of leaves and stems of Stenolobium stans had moderate inhibitory activity against soybean 15-lipoxygenase.(1)
Phytochemicals / Secondary Metabolites: Air-dried flowers of Stenolobium stans yielded a new fatty acid cinnamate ester and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol in a 1:1 ratio.
(2)
Genotoxic / Cytotoxic Potential: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts on bone marrow cells from BALB/c mice through mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations and cytotoxic effects on extracts of two MEF cell lines. the genotoxic potential of T. stans in in vivo and in vitro systems. There was no clastogenic effect. In vivo testing showed cytotoxic effects on mouse embryo in vitro, and suggests caution in the use of the substance as medicine. (5)
Antiulcer: Study of ethanolic extract for antiulcer properties showed a reduction of gastric juice, pH, free acid ulcer score, and percentage of ulcer protection in pyloric ligated models. It was as effective as standard synthetic drugs like Ranitidine. Results showed a therapeutic potential for control of ulcer. (6)
Antidiabetic: Study of evaluated the antidiabetic mechanisms of Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense. Results showed both exert their antidiabetic effects through stimulation of glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes without significant proadipogenic and antiadipogenic side effects. (7)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of methanol and ethanol extracts showed potent antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and moderate activity against Xanthomonas oryzae. All solvent extracts showed high activity against Aspergillus and Alternaria. Although the DPPH radical scavenging activity was less than ascorbic acid, results showed a proton donating ability and a potential to serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenging, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. (8)
Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study an ethyl acetate floral extract showed an important role of reactive oxygen species and the relation to renal dysfunction and suggest a therapeutic potential of T. stans in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. (9)
Antifungal: In a study of antifungal activity of nine different plant species, Tecoma stans showed to give the best zone of inhibition against the fungal activity.
CNS Depressant Activity: Study in albino mice evaluated the CNS depressant potential of different extracts of T. stans flowers by measuring pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and locomotor activity. The methanolic extract exhibited the highest depressant activity. (10)
Anti-Obesity / Hypolipidemic / Flowers: Study showed a methanol extract of flowers to possess significant anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in rats fed an atherogenic diet. (12)
Anticancer: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of a methanolic flower extract of T. stans in both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro antitumor activity was evaluated by MTT assay using Vero and HEP-2 cell lines. In vivo activity was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor model. Results showed the METS possess significant dose dependent antitumor activity. (13)
Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaves extract on rat ileum contractility. Results showed antispasmodic effect without involvement of ß-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors, potassium channels and NO production. Results suggest involvement of calcium channels in the spasmolytic effect.
(14)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study showed an alcohol leaf extract of Tecoma stans to have excellent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. (15)
Nephroprotective / Cisplatin, Gentamicin, and Paracetamol Induced Renal Damage: Study of an ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant inhibition of cisplatin, gentamicin, and paracetamol induced renal damage in rats, an effect attributed to its antioxidant properties. (16)
Corrosion Resistance on Mild Steel: Study evaluated the inhibition potential of mild steel by T. stans leaves. Results showed the extract to be a potent inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium. Polarization studies showed the extract to be a mixed type inhibitor. (17)
Anti-Diarrheal: Study evaluated acute toxicity and anti-diarrheal effect of an ethanolic flower extract of Tecoma stans using Wistar albino rats. Results showed a significant anti-diarrheal effect attributed to flavonoids and tannins. The LD50 was10,715 mg kg, indicating it is not dangerous to use, as suggests a potential herbal therapy for the treatment of diarrhea. (19)
Lipid Lowering Effect: Study evaluated the lipid lowering effect of the hydroalcoholic flower extract of T. stans in triton and diet induced hyperlipidemic models of wistar albino rats. There was significant attenuation of elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in HDL. The lipid lowering effect was attributed to the interference of cholesterol biosynthesis and utilization of lipids. (20)
Cardioprotective: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of a 70% ethanolic extract of flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Results showed the extract prevented a fall in antioxidants and retarded the elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats. Results were supported by histopathological findings. The cardioprotective effect was attributed to polyphenolics and phytofragments found in GC-MS analysis.(21)
Antidiabetic: Study of T. stans stem extract in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats showed antidiabetic activity. Phytoanalysis yielded saponins, flavonoids, and monoterpenoid alkaloids (tecostanine and tecomine). The antidiabetic activity was similar to that of standard drug glibenclamide. In addition, there was reduction of triglycerides, cholesterol, and LDL. (22)
Tecomine / Anti-Diabetic: Tecomine, an alkaloid with considerable hypoglycemic activity, was subjected to a stability study. Results showed pH dependent degradation of the alkaloid and that antioxidants are beneficial in delaying its deterioration. (23)


Availability
Wild-crafted and ornamental cultivation.
Seeds in the cybermarket.

Last Update April 2014

Photos © / Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Preliminary Studies on Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Selected Malaysian Medicinal Plants / M P Mazura and S K Ling / Pharmacognosy Research Volume :1 Issue :1 • January 2009 - February 2009
(2)
Secondary metabolites from Stenolobium stans
/ Isolation, Structural Elucidation, and Antimicrobial Assay of Secondary Metabolites from Six Philippine Medicinal Plants / Consolacion Y. Ragasa / Chemistry Department
(3)
Phytochemical Investigation and Evaluation of Leaves of Tecoma stans for Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity / V. Lakshmiprasanna / Pharm Dissertation /
(4)
Isolation, Structural Elucidation, and Antimicrobial Assay of Secondary Metabolites from Six Philippine Medicinal Plants / Consolacion Y. Ragasa / DLSU
(5)
Genotoxic and cytotoxic study of Tecoma stans Bignoniaceae / Al-Azzawi AM./ Pak J Biol Sci. 2012 Jan 15;15(2):92-7.
(6)
Gastric Ulcer Healing Activity of Tecoma stans Leaf / Arnabaditya Mohanty, Vinod Kumar Sahu et al / IntRJPharmSci.2012; 03(01); 0038
(7)
The antidiabetic plants Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) and Teucrium cubense Jacq (Lamiaceae) induce the incorporation of glucose in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes / Angel Josabad Alonso-Castroa, Rocio Zapata-Bustos et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127 (2010) 1–6
(8)
ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TECOMA STANS (L.) JUSS. EX KUNTH / Govindappa M, Sadananda TS, Channabasava R et al / Journal of Phytology 2011, 3(3): 68-76
(9)
Floral extract of Tecoma stans: a potent inhibitor of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo.
/ Raju S, Kavimani S, Maheshwara Rao VU, Reddy KS, Kumar GV. / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Sep;4(9):680-5.
(10)
CNS depressant activity of different extracts of Tecoma stans flowers / Kameshwaran Sugavanam et al / Asian Journ of Trad Medicine, 2012, 7 (1)
(11)
Sorting Tecoma names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(12)
Anti-obesity and Hypolipidemic Activity of Methanol Extract of Tecoma stans Flowers on Atherogenic Diet Induced Obesity in Rats / S. Kameshwaran, C. Jothimanivannan, R. Senthilkumar and A.R. Kothai / Pharmacologica, Volume 4 Issue 2, 2013
(13)
ANTI CANCER POTENTIAL OF TECOMA STANS FLOWER EXTRACT / S.Kameshwaran*, V.Suresh, M.Mohanraj / Pharmacy Infopedia
(14)
Antispasmodic effect of Tecoma stans (L.) Juss leaf extract on rat ileum
/ Gharib Naseri M.K., Asadi Moghaddam M., Bahadoram S. / DARU Vol. 15, No. 3 2007
(15)
ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF TECOMA STANS LEAF EXTRACTS / V Lakshmi Prasanna*, K Lakshman, Medha M Hegde and Vinutha Bhat / Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Vol 1, No 2, March-April 2013
(16)
Effect of Tecoma Stans Leaves Extract on Experimentally Induced Renal Injury In Various Animal Models /
Shanmukha I, Abubaker Siddiq, Prabhu K, Ramachandra Setty S* / American Journal of PharmTech Research
(17)
Enhanced corrosion resistance of Tecoma stans extract on mild steel IN 0.5M H2SO4 solution
/ Saratha, R., Saranya Devi, M., Meenakshi, H.N and Shyamala, R. / International Journal of Current Research
(18)
Yellow Bells / Common names / Flowers of India
(19)
Acute Toxicity Study and Faecal Dropping Capability of Ethanolic Extract of Tecoma stans in Albino Rats / S. Kameshwaran, C. Jothimanivannan, R. Senthilkumar, S. Thenmozhi, R. Sundaraganapathy and M. Dhanalakshmi / Pharmacologia, Volume 4 Issue 7, 2013
(20)
Lipid lowering activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Tecoma stans L. Flowers in hyperlipidemic models of wistar albino rats / Ranjan Kumar Giri*, Sunil Kumar Kanungo, Niroj K. Tripathi / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (5):1386-1389 / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (5):1386-1389
(21)
Cardioprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Tecoma stans flowers against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats / Shanmukha Ittagi, Vijay Kumar Merugumolu, Ramachandra Setty Siddamsetty* / Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014; 4(Suppl 1): S378-S384
(22)
Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity of Tecoma Stans Stem Extract in Induced Diabetic Albino Rats / Elosh G*, Palanivel V and Senthil Kumar KL / International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical Research. 2013,4(3),337-341.
(23)
Stability of tecomine, the major antidiabetic factor of tecoma stans (Juss.) f. bignoniaceae / Youssef Hammouda andNawal Khalafallah / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 60, Issue 8, pages 1142–1145, August 1971 / DOI: 10.1002/jps.2600600806


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