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Family Moraceae
Tsempedak
Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.
SMALL JACKFRUIT

Scientific names Common names
Artocarpus champeden (Lour.) Stokes. Tsempedak (Tag.)
Artocarpus hirsutissimus Kurz. Champedak (Engl.)
Artocarpus intergrifolius L.f. Chempedak (Engl.)
Artocarpus interger (Thunb.) Merr.. Small jackfruit (Engl.)
Artocarpus jaca Miq.  
Artocarpus pilosus Reinw. ex Miq.  
Radermachia integra Thunb.  
Saccus interger (Thunb.) Kuntze  
Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Sonekadat.
HINDI: Katol, Kathar, Kathal.
INDONESIAN: Mandai, Dami.
JAPANESE: Koparamitsu
MALAY: Baroh, Baduk, Campedak, Cempedak, Chempedak utan, Nangka, Nangka liar.
SINHALESE: Pam varaka.
TAMIL: Pilual, Chakka.
THAI: Champada.
VIETNAMESE: Mit to nu.

Gen info
- Artocarpus integer, chempedak or cempedak, is a species of tree in the Maraceae family, in the same genus as breadfruit (rimas) or jackfruit (langka).
- Chempedak is sometimes confused with jackfruit (Langka, Artocarpus heterophyllus). Chempedak is smaller and the peduncle is thinner. Chempedak flesh is darker yellow and juicier when ripe, and odoriferous. (5)

Botany
Artocarpus integer is a large, evergreen tree, growing as high as 20 meters, often less. Bark is grayish-brown. Tree is monoecious, the male and female flowers in the same tree. Leaves are alternate, obovate to elliptic, covered with thin and stiff brown hairs., 5 to 25 centimeters long, 2.5 to 12 centimeters wide. Leaf tips are covered by stipules, also covered with brown hairs. Flowers are borne on solitary stalked inflorescences. Male flowering head is cylindrical, 3.5 to 5 centimeters long and 1 centimeter wide, yellowish-white in color. Fruit is syncarpous, cylindrical to spherical in shape, 10 to 15 centimets across, 20 to 35 centimeters long. Skin is thin and leathery, greening, yellowish to brownish in color, patterened with pentagonal raised protuberances or flat eye facets. Seeds are large, surrounded by fleshy, edible arils. Arils are yellowish-white to orange in color, sweet and fragrant, slippery on slimy on the tongue. Fruit when ripe has a pungent, harsh, and penetrating smell similar to durian. Seeds are edible flattened spheres or elongated, 2 to 3 centimeters in length. (5)

Distribution
- Introduced.
- Widely cultivated in Thailand, Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula.

Constituents
- Study of leaves for secondary metabolits using a chloroform solvent yielded alkaloids with absence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, and steroids. (11)
- Nutrient analysis per 100 gm: energy 117.0 Kcal, water 66.7 g, protein 2.5 g, fat 0.4 g, carbohydrats 25.8 g, fiber 3.4 g, calcium 40.0 mg, phosphorus 5.0 mg, iron 11 mg, vitamin C 17.7 mg, carotene 80 µg, vitamin B1 0.16 mg, vitamin B2 0.15 mg, niacin 0.5 mg, (13)
- Seed composition based on dry weight (100g) approximately yields protein 10-13%, fat 0.5-1.5%, carbohydrate 77-81%, fiber 4-6%, and ash 3-4%. Water content (fresh) is 46-78%. Number of seeds per fruit varies from 14-131, with total seed weight perfruit of 65-880g, and weight per seed from 1-12 g. (14)
- Antimalarial activity-guided study of aerial parts of Artocarpus integer isolated a prenylated stilbene, trans-4-(3-methyl-E-but-1-enyl)-3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene, along with known stilbenes, trans-4-isopentenyl-3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene and 4-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(2-(2,4-dihydroxy)phenyl-trans-ethenyl)chromene. (see study below) (15)

Properties
- Pulp of the fruit is slimy and odoriferous, similar to durian. Flavor is sweet, resembling mango and durian. (5)
- Fruits have a short shelf-life of 2 to 3 days. (5)
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial properties.


Parts used
Fruit, roots.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruit is edible, eaten fresh or fried with flour, or made into pudding. (5)
- Fruit pulp is odoriferous, like durian. (5)
- Unripe fruit is eaten as vegetable.
- Ripe seeds are edible; roasted or boiled. (5)
- Like durian, the smell and taste of the fruit can be overwhelming. To the uninitiated, dishes made from seeds is easier and palatable introduction.. (14)
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
Others
- Wood: Strong and durable; ussed as material for building furniturs or boats. (5)
- Fiber: Fibrous bark used to make ropes. (5)
- Dye: Wood yields a yellow dye. (5)

- Latex: Bark yields a latex used in the preparation of lime.

Studies
Anti-Inflammatory / Flavonoids / Bark:
Artocarpus integer var. silvestris Comer is the putative relative of A. integer (Cempedak).Study of bark isolated a new pyranoflavone, methoxycyclocommunol (1) along with four known flavonoids, artonin F (2), heteroflavanone A (3), cudraflavone C (4) and cyclocommunol (5). The pure compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activitys, In a 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) inhibitory assay, compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed strong dose-dependent inhibition towards prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysacchardie-induced human whole blood using radioimmunoassay method. IC50s of 4.3, 0.8 and 0.07 µg, respectivvely suggested strong COX-2 activity. (4)
Cellulose from Waste: Jackfruit peel is among the underutilized waste materials. Study reports on the extraction of cellulose from de-pectinated peel. The yield of jackfruit cellulose was 27g/100g of dry matter. Bulk, true densities, and carr's index of cellulose were 0.17 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 10.561%, respectively. Results suggest jackfruit peel has potential as source of natural cellulose and compares favorably with commercial grade cellulose used for food, pharmaceutical,, and cosmetic applications. (6)
Effect of Drying Temperatures on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties: The fermented inner skin of cempedak (A. integer) may be used as industrial ingredient while maintaining its antioxidative capacity. Study investigated the effect of temperature on yield, chemical properties and antioxidant activity of starter induced fermented mandai powder. Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH assay. There was a strong correlation between TPC, HTC, TFC, and antioxidant capacity. Drying temperature affected all observed parameters except for pH and ash. Temperature of 45°C was the best for production of madai powder. Antioxidant capacity was contributed to by phenolic components. (7)
Antibacterial / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol fractions of A. integer stem bark. All the fractions yielded terpenoid and steroid compounds. The three fractions inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus using agar diffusion method. The chloroform fraction showed highest activity with inhibition areas of 10.8 and 10.4 mm, respectively. (8)
Artocarpin / Antibacterial / Roots: Artocarpin is an isoprenyl flavone from Artocarpus species. Artocarpin from the roots of A. integer displayed antibacterial properties, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus epidermis, S. aureus, and Propionibacterium acnes with MICs of 4, 2, and 2 µg/ml, respectively. In another study, artocarpin inhibited methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and E coli, both with MICs 62.5 mg/ml) and P. aeruginosa with MIC 250 mg/ml. Artocapin also showed synergistic effects with norfloxacin against MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. (8)
Glycemic Index of Bread Substituted with Chempedak Seed Flour: In vitro starch hydrolysis was done to evaluate the hydrolyxis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (EGI) of bread substituted with different levels of chempedak (Artocarpus integer) seed flor (CSF). Bread of 30% CSF exhibited significantly lower (p<0.05) in vitro starch hydrolyxix. The HI value decreased significantly (p<0.05) as levels of CSF substitution increased. Resistant starch content in bread samples were inversely related with HI value as CSF substitution levels increase, thus lowering the estimated clycemic index. (12)
Potent Odorants in Fruit: AEDA (aroma extract dilution analysis) combined with GC-O (gas chromatography-olfactometry) and GC-MS studies evaluated the aroma-impact compounds in two cultivars of chempedak fruit grown in Thailand, Tongtapan and Sainumpung. Based on sensory evaluation, 3-methylbutanol, octanal, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were important odorants in the overall aromas of both cultivars, while ethyl-3-methylbutanoate was an additional key odorant in the aroma of the Tongtapan cultivar. (13)
Antimalarial / Stilbene / Aerial Parts: Antimalarial activity-guided study of aerial parts of Artocarpus integer isolated a prenylated stilbene, trans-4-(3-methyl-E-but-1-enyl)-3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene with an EC50 of 1.7 micrograms/ml against Plasmodium falcifarum in culture. (see constituents above) (15)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated

July 2020

                                                  PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Artocarpus integre / click on image to go to source page / © TopTropicals
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Artocarpus integre -- cut fruit / click on image to go to source page / © HealthBenefits
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Artocarpus integer / Berthe Hoola van Nooten (1817-1892), Pieter de Pannemaeker (lithographer) / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Artocarpus integer / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2)
Sorting Artocarpus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

(2)
Sorting Eragrostis names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(3)
Artocarpus integer / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
(4)
Flavonoids from the Bark of Artocarpus integer var. silvestris and their Anti-inflammatory Properties / Masuri Kama Kamaruddin Shah, Hasnah Mohd Sirat, Shajarahtunnur Jamil and Juriyati Jalil / Natural Products Communications, 2016; 11(9): pp 1275-1278
(5)
Artocarpus integer / Wikipedia

(6)
EXTRACTION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF CELLULOSE FROM JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS INTEGER) WASTE / Antony Allwyn Sundar Raj  and Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017
(7)
Different drying temperatures modulate chemical and antioxidant properties of mandai cempedak (Artocarpus integer) / Anton Rahmadi, Yuliana Sabarina, Sukmiyati Agustin / F1000Research, 2018; 7:1706
(8)
Phytocimia Test And Antibacterial Bioactivity Of Extracts from Stem Bark of Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr / Liska Hamzah / Indonesia Chimica Acta, Dec 2019; 12(2) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20956/ica.v12i2.7214
(9)
Chemistry and Pharmacology of Artocarpin: An Isoprenyl Flavone from Artocarpus Species / Eric Wei Chiang Chan, Siu Kuin Wong, Joseph Tangah, Hung Tuck Chan / Sys Rev Pharm., 2018; 9(1): pp 58-63
(10)
Nutrient Composition of Artocarpus champeden and Its Hybrid (Nanchem) in Negara Brunei Darussalam / L. B. L. LIM, H. I. CHIENG AND F. L. WIMMER / ASEAN J. Sci. Technol. Dev., 28(2): pp 122-138
(11)
Identification Of The Secondary Metabolite Compounds From Cempedak Tree Leaves (Artocarpus Integer) / Ali Rakhman Hakim / Advances in Health Science Research, 2017; Vol 6
(12)
In vitro starch hydrolysis and estimated glycaemic index of bread substituted with different percentage of chempedak (Artocarpus integer) seed flour / Zabidi, Mardiana Ahamad, Aziz, Noor Aziah Abdul / Food Chemistry, 2009; 117(1): pp 64-68
(13)
Characterization of potent odorants in Thai chempedak fruit (Artocarpus integer Merr.), an exotic fruit of Southeast Asia / Mantana Buttara, Kith R Cadwallader et al / Food Research International, Dec 2014; 66: pp 388-395 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.10.004
(14)
Artocarpus integer / Pl@ntUse
(15)
An antimalarial stilbene from Artocarpus integer / C Boonlaksiri, W Oonanant, P Kongsaeree, P Kittakoop, M Tanticharoen, Y Thebtaranonth / Phytochemistry, June 2000; 54(4): pp 415-417 /  doi: 10.1016/s0031-9422(00)00074-1

                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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