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Family Bignoniaceae

Tiwi
Dolichandrone spathacea (Linn. f.) K. Schum.
MANGROVE TRUMPET TREE

Scientific names Common names
Bignonia longissima Lour. Pata (Ilk.)
Bignonia spathacea Linn. f. Tañgas (Tagb.)
Dolichandrone spathacea (Linn. f.) K. Schum. Tanhas (C. Bis.)
Dolichandrone rheedii Seem. Tanghas (P. Bis.)
Dolichandrone longissima K. Schum. Tewi (Mbo.)
Spathodea luzonica Blanco Tiwi (Tag., Bik., C. Bis .)
Bignonia rheedii Wall. Tua (Tag.)
  Tui (Tag.)
  Mangrove trumpet tree (Engl.)
  Singapore mangrove (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Bignone de Malaysie.
HUNGARIAN: Lóhúsfa.
MALAY: Kaju, Kaju pelok, Kaju pelumping, , Poko kulo
MALAYALAM: Neerpongilium.
MARATHI: Samudrashingi.
RUSSIAN: Bignoniia dlinneyshaia.
SINHALESE: Diya danga
TAMIL: Kaliyacca, Mankulanchi, Pannir, Vilpadri.
THAI: Khaena, Khaepa.
VIETNAMESE: Quao.

Botany
Tiwi is a smooth tree, growing 5 to 15 meters high. Leaves are opposite, 30 to 40 centimeters long, pinnately compound with seven to nine leaflets. Leaflets are ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic, 7 to 15 centimeters long, unequal at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are borne on short, terminal, few-flowered racemes. Calyx is 4 to 5 centimeters long, spathelike, and split down one side to the base. Corolla is white, with a rather slender, cylindrical tube 9 to 11 centimeters long, becoming funnel-shaped or bell-shaped above, 5 to 7 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is a capsule, somewhat cylindrical or slightly compressed, 30 to 40 centimeters long, 2 to 2.5 centimeters thick, with numerous, rectangular, winged seeds.

Distribution
- Along the seashore and tidal streams from La Union to Palawan, Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.
- Also occurs in India through Malaya to New Guinea.

Constituents
Phytochemical screening yielded triterpene and saponin compounds.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Folkloric
• In the Philippines, poultice of fresh leaves and bark is applied against flatulence to women after childbirth.
• Seeds are powdered, and taken for nervous complaints.
• In Java, leaves are used for making mouthwash for thrush.
• Also, has a reputation as abortifacient.
• In Palau, for yaws (frambesia), bark is squeezed together with young stem and flower stalk of Croton sp., and the sap is poured in heated coconut oil; when cooled, applied to affected part of the body.
Others
Fish poison: The bark used as fish poison. Some reports that a decoction of bark in dogs have no ill effects.

Studies
Antibacterial / Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus:
Study of methanol extracts of stems and leaf showed inhibitory activity against MRSA clinical isolates. Stem extracts showed better inhibitory activity which was attributed to triterpene and saponin compounds. (2)
Antioxidant: In a study of 52 traditionally used Thai medicinal plants, Dolichandrone spathacea leaves was one of six plant species that showed effective DPPH radical scavenging activity. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update April 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) Seemann [as nir-pongelion] / Rheede tot Drakestein, H.A. van, Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, vol. 6: t. 29 (1686)/ PlantIllustrations.org
IMAGE SOURCE: / Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) Schum. | Roxburgh pl.144/1795-1819 | BHL/ 1897 / Hortus Camdenensis

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
THE PALAUAN AND YAP MEDICINAL PLANT STUDIES OF MASAYOSHI OKABE, 1941-1943 / Robert Defilipps, Shirley Maina and Leslie Pray

(2)
Inhibitory potential against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of Dolichandrone spathacea, a mangrove tree species of Malaysia / Saiful, Azmi J.; Mastura, Mohtar; Mazurah, Mohamed; Nuziah, Hashim / Latin American Journal of Pharmacy; vol. 30, no. 2, pp 359-362
(3)
Sorting Dolichandrone names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(4)
Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants / Chutima Kaewpiboon, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Chantragan Srisomsap, Pakorn Winayanuwattikun, Tikamporn Yongvanich, Preecha Puwaprisirisan, Jisnuson Svasti and Wanchai Assavalapsakul*
/ BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:217 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-217


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