Soya is a stout and suberect annual plant
growing to a height of less than a meter. Stems are densely clothed
with fine feruginous hairs. Leaves are long-petioled, with 3 leaflets,
oval, 5 to 10 centimeters long. Racemes have few flowers which are congested. Calyx is densely hairy,
about 7 millimeters long, with long teeth. Corolla is reddish, and a little exserted. Pods are linear-oblong, 2 to 3 in each
axil of leaf, 4 to 5 centimeters long, recurved and densely hairy, containing
2 to 4 oblong to subglobose seeds.
- Domesticated in southeastern Asia more than 3,000 years ago for its pods and seeds.
in some parts of the Philippines.
• One of the world's most useful plant; and considered by some as the world's most important legume crop.
• Total commercial production of soybeans in 2010 was 261.6 million metric tons worldwide, harvested from 102.4 million hectares (2% of the world's agricultural land), with the U.S. producing just over one third of the world total. (13)
• Contains a fixed oil, 14-22&; protein, 50%; carbohydrates,
16.2%; diastase, urease, lipase, allantoinase, peroxidase, pentosan,
sojasterol, sitosterin, and phasin.
• The two primary isoflavones are daidzein and genistein; others
are puerarin, genistin and daidzin.
• Soybean proteins have two major components: beta-conglycinin
(vicilin class) and glycinin (legumin class), accounting for 390-40%
of total seed proteins.
• Nutrient analysis of raw mature seeds per 100 g (one cup=186 g): (Proximates) water 8.54 g, energy 446 kcal, protein 36.49 g, total lipid 19.94 g, carbohydrate by difference 30.16 g, total dietary fiber 9.3 g, total sugars 7.33 g; (Minerals) calcium 277 mg, iron 15.70 mg, magnesium 280 mg. phosphorus 704 mg, potassium 1797 mg, sodium 2, mg, zinc 4.98 mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 6.0 mg, thiamin 0.874 mg, riboflavin 0.870 mg, niacin 1.623 mg, folate 375 mg, vitamin A RAE 1 µg. vitamin A 22 IU, vitE 0.85 mg, vitamin K 47.0 µg; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids (FA) 2.884 g, total monosaturated FA 4.404 g, total polyunsaturated FA 11.255 g, trans FA 0, cholesterol 0. (17)
• Protein is the major constituent of soybean (30 to 50g/100g) and contributes to the supply of amino acids and nitrogen to humans and animals. Major soy proteins are storage proteins known as ß-conglycinin (7S) ab glycinin (11S), representing 65% to 80% of total seed proteins. (18)
• Phytochemical study of methanolic extract of eaves yielded
16 phytochemicals, including 5 isoflavones (1-5), flavones (6-8), flavonol (9), pterocarpans (10-11), phenolic compounds (12 and 13), phytosterols (14 and 15), and a sugar alcohol (16). The compounds were defined aas 4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone (1), 4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone-7-O-ß-D glucopyranoside (2), 4,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone (3), 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone (4), 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone (6), 3′,4′,5,7- tetrahydroxyflavone (7), 3′,4′,5-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (8), 3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavonol (9), coumestrol (10), glyceofuran (11), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (13), soyasapogenol B (14), stigmasterol (15), and D-mannitol (16),
astringent, carminative, and quieting.
• Dried sprout considered laxative, resolvent, and constructive.
• Root considered astringent.
Leaves, flowers, oil.
Edibility / Nutritional
- Typically consumed as a protein drink, soy flour, soy protein, extract,
fiber, cereal or milk beverage.
- Staple article of food in China and Japan.
- "Tokua" as food and" toyo" as flavoring are made
from the beans.
- Tokua is remarkable for its content of protein and fat and low proportion of carbohydrates when compared to beans.
- Soy milk is considered a substitute for human milk, and used in making
ice-cream and flan.
- Soybean is a good source of vitamins A and B; the sprouts have good
vitamin C content.
- Soybeans and soy foods are considered the best dietary sources of isoflavones.
• Bruised leaves
applied to snake bites.
• Flowers used for blindness and corneal opacities.
• Green bean hulls chewed to a pulp are applied to smallpox ulcers,
corneal ulcers and excoriations in children from urine.
• Black beans are considered to provide vigor and strength, and considered a counter poison against most vegetable poisons, ie., Aconite and Croton tiglii.
• Dried sprouts believed to be beneficial for hair growth and
curative for ascites and rheumatism.
• Dried sprouts, without the hulls, are considered laxative, resolvent, and constructive.
• Oil used for ulcers and skin diseases, and for removing bandoline from the hair.
lowering: Soy protein
in the diet can help decrease total and LDL cholesterol with no significant
effect on HDL.
Soy formula for infants
and young children decreased bowel movements and days of diarrhea.
May be beneficial in reducing menopausal symptoms, such as
hot flushes. A study in Spain of 190 postmenopausal women on isoflavone-rich
soy preparation (PHYTO SOYA) showed significant improvement in menopausal
symptoms associated with lack of estrogen.
Anti-Cancer: Some studies are
conflicting as to whether supplements can increase or decrease the risk
of breast cancer. The isoflavone genistein in animal cancer studies
have shown anticancer effects: anti-angiogenesis, tyrosine-kinase inhibition,
or apoptosis. However, genistein has been reported to increase growth
of pancreatic tumor cells in the lab.
• Diabetes: Functional
components associated with ameliorating T2DM: beta-sitosterol (antilipemic),
genisterin and daidzein (lipase inhibitory), glycitein and soyasaponin
A3, A4, A5, A6 and soyasaponin V (lipoxygenase inhibitory), soyasaponin
A1 and A2 and stigmasterol (antilipemic).
• Antihyperglycemic: Extracts from the seeds of G max were evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity. Results conclude that the aqueous extract, but not the petroleum ether and alcoholic extracts, showed antihyperglycemic activity. (6)
• Anti-Arthritic: A study of G max for antiarthritic activity showed reversal of paw volume, biochemical, hematological and histological parameters. Further investigation is suggested to identify the compounds responsible for the antiarthritic activity.
• Isoflavone / Antioxidant: Study showed soy extracts activate NO synthesis in endothelial cells and protect against cell damage. The soy isoflavones potentially act as a NO promoter and as an antioxidant. (8)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed ethanolic extracts of G max and R nulubilis seeds tested possessed antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities.
• Potent Phytoestrogen Glycinol: Primary induced isoflavones in soybean, the glyceollins, have been shown to be potent estrogen antagonists in vitro and in vivo, The glyceeollins have showed ability to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and caused study of estrogenic activities of other induced isoflavones. Study of a novel isoflavone, glycinol, showed potent estrogenic activity and may represent an important component of the health effects of soy-based foods.
• Antibacterial / Anticancer: Study
evaluated various extracts of four trifoliate plants: Glycine max (control), Cajanus cajans, Phaseolus vulgaris and Tecoma stans for bioactivities. The chloroform extract showed the best antibacterial activity; the methanol extracts, the best anticancer activity. (12)
• Chemomodulatory / Anticancer: Study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of Glycine max against DMBA-induced skin and MCA-induced cervical pappilomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results showed G. max provided chemoprevention by modulating the detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes. (15)
Dermatological / Cosmeceutical: Review presents an overview on dermatological and cosmeceutical studies on soybean and its bioactive compounds.
Isoflavones, a major class of flavonoids in soybean, possess antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activcity. Topical applications of soy isoflavones to mouse skin before UVB exposure reduced the expression of COX-2. Several experimental studies have suggested topical treatment of soybean isoflavone genistein inhibits UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in a hairless mice model. Studies suggested that soybean seed extract and its active components such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids (quercetin, genistein, and daidzein) and proteins (Bowman-Birk inhibitor and soybean trypsin inhibitor) are safe and effective in improving numerous skin care parameters. Thus, soybean extracts have potential for many dermatological and cosmeceutical benefits, i.e., protection, restoration, and benefits. (18)
• Antibacterial / Seeds: Study evaluated the antibacterial effects of methanolic extract of seeds of G. max against Gram-negative and positive bacteria (L. monocytogenes, B. cereus, S. aureus, and K. pneumonia) using M7 and M9 varieties. Results showed dose-dependent antibacterial effect, with inhibition zones varying from 5.94 to 24.95 mm. The M7 variety showed higher antimicrobial effect than M9. (20)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Seed: Study evaluated the effect of crude extract of seeds of Glycine max on serum lipid profiles of ad-libitum high-cholesterol-fed male albino wistar rats. The observed protective could be due to the hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity of soy. It may be due to one or more phytochemicals present in the soy, such as isoflavones, phytic acid, soya saponin, phytosterol. (21)
• Douchi (Fermented Soybean) / Alleviation of Atopic Dermatitis: Study evaluated whether Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) from fermented soybeanss can attenuate protein kinase C (PCK) and interleukin (IL)-4 response and cutaneous inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD)-like NC/Nga mice. Douchi treatment of NC/Nga mice significantly reduced clinical scores (p<0.01) and histological features. Reduction of IL-4 and PKC led to decrease in inflammatory factors i.e., substance P, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), all at P<0.01. Douchi also downregulated TH1 and Th2 markers. Results suggest potential in the prevention and treatment of AD. (22)
• Effect of Cadmium Treatment on Biochemical Activity in Glcine max: Studies evaluated secondary metabolites production and the biochemical potential of Glycine max exposed to Cd-rich growing medium. Cadmium treatment in the form of Cadmium chloride increased the amino acid, protein, prolein, and diadzene content in field grown soybean plants at different developmental stages, with increase in antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD, CAT, and GRT with increase in Cd treatment. Results suggest higher diadzene production in Cd-enriched soya bean contributed to higher medicinal value. (23)
• Antidiabetic Herbal Formulation Comprising Glycine Max: The invention provides a novel herbal preparation comprising of Glycine max active fraction containing 75 globulin protein extract, Curcuma longa, and Zingiber officinale rhizome extract for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes related diseases. (24)
• Immunomodulatory Effects / Seeds: Study evaluated the in-vitro immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of dry seeds of Glycine max seeds for secretion of various meditors examined on murine macrophage phagocytosis by NBT reduction, NO, lysosomal enzyme activity and myeloperoxidase activity. Both extracts presented immunomodulatory activity in peritoneal mouse macrophages, bone marrow cells and spleenocyts with clear dose response relationship. (25)
• Effect on Development of Non-Alcoholic Fat Liver in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice: Study investigated the effect of soybean leaf extract on the development of hepatic steatosis in high fat diet fed mice. Increase in body weight gain and visceral and subcutaneous tissues were attenuated by the leaf treatment, There was marked increase in phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC and their protein expression with inhibition of fatty acid synthase protein expression. Result showed soybean extract has beneficial effect against hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. (26)
• Soy Isoflavones / Antioxidant / Protection of Free Radical Induced RBC Damage and Plasma Degradation: Study evaluated the antioxidant property of soy isoflavonesw and its protective role on red cells against free radicals and pasma protein degradation. Results suggest soy isoflavones protect RBCs and plasma protein degradaton from oxidative stress. (27)
• Allergies: Like milk, eggs, peanuts, fish and wheat, may act as a food allergen. Symptoms are can be varied, from runny nose to hypotension.
• Side Effects: Soy protein may cause gastrointestinal intolerance – bloating, nausea, constipation. Infants fed with soy protein formula may develop vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, colitis, atopic eczema and thyroid abnormalities.
• Estrogen Effects: Because of concerns on estrogen-like effects, its use is discouraged in patients with hormone-sensitive cancers (breast, ovarian, uterine).
Extracts and miscellany of soy food products and supplements in the cybermarket.