There are 150 endemic Ficus species in the Philippines. (4)
Pakiling is a small tree reaching a height of nine meters, with young hispidous, greenish branchlets. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong or broadly ovate and rounded, 16 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 centimeters wide, acuminate at the apex, cordately inequilateral, margins toothed, lateral veins 6 to 8 pairs, prominent underneath, base penta- to octa-veined, venation semi-craspedodromous. Young branches are greenish, pubescent, petiole 1.0 to 1.2 centimeters long. (4)
- Endemic in the Philippines.
- Widely cultivated in Tayabas, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, and Laguna in Luzon.
- Dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded l -sitosteryl-3ß-glucopyranoside-6'- O-palmitate ( 1), squalene (2), lutein ( 3), α-amyrin acetate ( 4), lupeol acetate ( 5), and ß-carotene ( 6). (See study below) (2)
- Phytochemical screening yielded terpenes, glycosides, and phenolic acids.
Crude extract yielded low gallic acid and quercetin equivalence. (3)
- Nutrient analysis of leaf for major dietary components yielded 47.5% carbohydrates and 36.1% dietary fibers, 15.2% total proteins, and 4.7% total fat. Micronutrients present were calcium (3.35%), potassium (1.38%), with trace amounts of sodium and zinc. (see study below) (8)
- Dried leaves are fragrant.
- Studies suggest prooxidant, cytotoxic, genotoxic properties.
- Studies suggest hypoglycemic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anticancer properties.
- Used in the treatment of allergy, asthma, diarrhea, diabetes, tumor and cancer. (4)
- Commonly used by the Aetas of Bataan for treatment of various ailments. (8)
• Cytotoxicity / Human Stomach Adenocarcinoma Cell Line / Leaves: Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded 6 compounds. Compound 1 (l -sitosteryl3ß-glucopyranoside-6'- O-palmitate) showed cytotoxicity against human stomach adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with 60.28% growth inhibition. (See constituents above) (2)
• Teratogenicity: Study of investigated leaf extracts of Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. and Baccaurea tetrandra (Baill) for teratogenic/antiteratogenic potential in inbred strain of ICR mice. Results showed a strong potential for F. odorata, with a high frequency of congenital abnormalities in the fetuses of mice treated with crude leaf extracts. Both plants did not show antiteratogenic activity. (3)
• Pro-Oxidant Activity: Study evaluated F. odorata for potential medical application for its pro-oxidant activity. Pro-oxidant activity was evident in the crude ethanolic leaf extract. Results suggest F. odorata can be tapped as functional food and nutraceutical and drug development. (4)
• Cytotoxic / Genotoxic / Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Leaves: Study evaluated Ficus odorata as a chemopreventive agent. Results showed a crude ethanolic extract has potent cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. It also showed genotoxic activity by Comet and TUNEL assays. The extract induced release of caspase 3 protease which activates cell apoptosis. Results suggest a potential anticancer agent. (5)
• Hypoglycemic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of leaves of Ficus odorata. A dichlormethane fraction exhibited scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, there was significant decrease in mean blood sugar after a 14-day treatment. On toxicity study, it was non toxic up to 2000 mg/kg. (7)
• Prebiotic Potential: Nutritional analysis showed F. odorota is a fiber-rich food ingredient with a wide range of health benefits. F. odorata has potential as functional food component as prebiotics for probiotics. (see constituents above) (8)
• Antibacterial /
Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of Ficus odorata leaves against different gastrointestinal bacteria i.e., B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. marcescens. (9)