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Family Lamiaceae
Suganda
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

OREGANO
Zuo shou xiang

Scientific names  Common names 
Coleus amboinicus Lour.  Bildu (Sul.) 
Coleus aromaticus Benth. Clavo (C. L. Bis.) 
Coleus carnosus Hassk. Garabo (Surigao)
Coleus crassifolius Benth. Latai (Sub.)
Coleus subfrutectosus Summerh. Latay (Sub.) 
Coleus suborbicularis Zoll. & Moritzi Suganda (Tag.)
Coleus suganda Blanco  Broad leaf thyme (Engl.)
Coleus vaalae (Forssk.) Deflers   Country borage (Engl.)
Majana amboinica (Lour.) Kuntze  Indian borage (Engl.)
Majana carnosa (Hassk.) Kuntze  Oregano (Engl.)
Majana suganda (Blanco) Kuntze   
Ocimum vaalae Forssk.   
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Sprengel  
Coleus aromaticus Benth. is a synonym of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. The Plant List
Oregano is a common names shared by (1) Origanum vulgare, related to the herb marjoram, sometimes referred to as wild marjoram (2) Plectranthus amboinicus, formerly Coleus aromaticus, sometimes referred to as Mexican mint or Mexican thyme (3) Lippia graveolens, referred to as Mexian oregano, and (4) Poliomintha longiflora, also called oregano in America. Wikipedia
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIAN: Sak dam ray.
CHINESE: Zuo shou xiang, Yin du bo he, Dao shou xiang.
FIJIAN: Rhaivoki, Sage.
FRENCH: Plectranthus aromatique, Coleus d'Afrique.
GERMAN: Cubanischer Oregano, Jamaican-Thymian.
INDIA: Pashan bhedi, Karpooravalli, Patharchur.
INDONESIAN: Torbangun, Daun Kutjing, Daun kucing, Daun kambing.
JAPANESE: Koreusu aromatikusu, Koreusu amboinikusu, Kuuban oregano.
MALAY: D Daun bangun-bangun.
RUSSIAN: Plektrantus aromatnyi.
SPANISH: Orégano, Orégano de la tierra (Cuba), Orégano poleo (Domin. Rep.), Oreganón (Cuba).
THAI: Hom duan huu suea, Niam huu suea.
VIETNAMESE: Tan day la.

Botany
Suganda is an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb, with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls. Calyx is bell-shaped; the throat is smooth inside, with two lips, the upper lip being ovate and thin, the lower lip having four narrow teeth. Corolla is pale purplish and 5 times longer than the calyx, with a short tube, inflated throat, and short lips.

Distribution
- Cultivated for its aromatic leaves.

- Certainly introduced.
- Also occurring in India to Malaya.

Constituents
- Fresh leaves yield 0.055 volatile oil, largely carvacrol.

- Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, saponins, glycosides.
- Aerial parts yielded essential oil with 28 constituents, 16 of which were identified. Thymol (83.39%) was the major compound, while 1-octen-3-ol, terpine-4-ol, eugenol, trans-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and α-cadinol were present as minor constituents. (16)
- Study of flowers and aerial parts for essential oils yielded four compounds from flowers oil and twelve from the aerial parts. The major constituent was carvacrol in flowers and aerial parts, 50.98% and 77.16% respectively.
Other constituents were p-cymene, ß-caryophyllene, and trans-a-bergamotene. (17)
- Aqueous leaf extracts yielded tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides, and polyuronides. GCMS yielded 11 chemical compounds (97.6%), the principal constituents of which include linalool (50.3%), nerol acetate (11.6%), Germany acetate (11.7%) and carvacrol (14.3%).(34)
- Essential oil yielded 26 compounds. Major compounds were carvacrol (28.65%), thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). (see study below) (39)
- Study survey shows the occurrence of 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes. (42)
- GC-MS study of leaf for volatile constituents yielded linalool (50.3%) as major component, carvacrol (10.3%), geranyl acetate (11.75%), nerol acetate (11.6%), y-terpinene (3.2%), p-cymene (2.9%), nerol (2.3%), a-4-carene (1.3%), caryophyllene (1.2%), and ß-myrcene (0.8%). (42)
- Crude ethanolic extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, phenols,, saponins, carbohydrates, and protein. (see study below) (46)

Properties
- Aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, tonic, stimulant.
- In India, considered antilithiotic, chemopreventive, antiepileptic, antioxidant.

Parts utilized
Leaves

Uses
Edibility / Culinary
· As condiment, provides fragrance to salads and strong-smelling meat dishes.
· Sometimes, used as flavoring for drinks.
· In India, leaves of the green type often eaten raw with bread and butter. Chopped leaves used as a substitute for sage. (21)
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, macerated fresh leaves applied externally to burns.
· Leaves are bruised and applied to centipede and scorpion bites. Also, applied to temples and forehead for headache, help in place by a bandage.
· Leaves in infusion or as syrup used as aromatic and carminative; used for dyspepsia and also as a cure for asthma.
· The Malays used the plant juice or decoction for pains around the areas of the heart or abdomen.
· Decoction of leaves given after childbirth.
· In Indo-China, given for asthma and bronchitis.

· The juice of the leaves for dyspepsia, asthma, chronic coughs, bronchitis, colic, flatulence, rheumatism. The dose is one tablespoonful of the fresh juice every hour for adults and one teaspoonful every two hours, four times daily, for children. As an infusion, 50 to 60 grams to a pint of boiling water, and drink the tea, 4 to 5 glasses a day. For children, 1/2 cup 4 times daily.
· For otalgia (ear aches), pour the fresh, pure juice into the ear for 10 minutes.
· For carbuncles, boils, sprains, felons, painful swellings: Apply the poultice of leaves to the affected area, four times daily.
· For sore throats, a decoction of two tablespoonfuls of dried leaves to a pint of boiling water, taken one hour before or after meals.
· In India, leaves are used traditionally for bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, epilepsy, nephro-cystolithiasis, fever, indigestion and cough. Also used for malarial fever, hepatopathy, renal and vesicle calculi, hiccup, helminthiasis, colic, and convulsions.
·
The Chinese used the juice of leaves with sugar, for cough in children, asthma and bronchitis, epilepsy and convulsive disorders.
·
Leaves are applied to cracks at the corners of the mouth, for thrush, headaches; against fever as a massage or as a wash.
· Used for bladder and urinary afflictions, and vaginal discharges.
·
Used as carminative, given to children for colic.
· In Bengal, used for coli and dyspepsia.
· Expressed juice applied around the orbit to relieve conjunctival pain.
Others
· Fresh leaves rubbed on clothing or hair at the time of bathing for its scent.
Recent uses and preparations
Respiratory ailments like cough, asthma and bronchitis: Squeeze juice of the leaves. Take one teaspoon every hour for adults. For children above 2 years old, 3 to 4 teaspoons a day.

Studies
Antioxidant / Anticlastogenic / Radioprotective: Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation: The hydroalcoholic extract of CA showed dose-dependent radical scavenging against free radicals, rendered radioprotection against radiation induced DNA damage. Study results established antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention. (2)
Antioxidant: Study of freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ca clearly established the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried extract of C aromaticus.
Mast cell stabilization property: Study showed stabilization of mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1 hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis. (3)
Antimicrobial: Results showed the antimicrobial activity and suggests the herb could be an ideal choice for treating reproductive tract infections. (3)
Antimicrobial: Study showed the antimicrobial effect of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum toward C albicans and Strep mutans. (7)
Anticlastogenicity: Study of ethanolic extract of C aromaticus showed a protective effect against cyclophophamide and mitomycin-C induced cytogenetic damage. (6)
Anti-Inflammatory: In a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the inhibition of mediators released from the 2nd phase of inflammation. (8)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study showed both ethanol and hot water leaf extracts of Coleus aromaticus to possess potent antibacterial activity, the ethanol extract showing greater activity. Results provide scientific support for the centuries-old use of the plant as a medicinal herb.
(9)
Forskolin / Antioxidant / Anti-Asthma / Pulmo-protective: Study isolated forskolin, a diterpenoid, from a methanolic extract of C aromaticus. C aromaticus has been used to treat asthma. Forskolin has been thought to be responsible for its pharmaceutical activity through restoration of antioxidant enzyme activity with its ability to scavenge free radicals. The results validate the use of forskolin as an anti-asthmatic agent. (11)
Insecticidal / Anti-Termite: Study investigating the leaf essential oil of C. amboinicus yielded six components. The major component was thymol (94.3%), followed by carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, spathuylenol, terpinen-4-ol. The oil was insecticidal to white termites (Odontotermes obesus Rhamb). It was more active than synthetic insecticides, Thiodan and Primoban-20 against termites, although it was ineffective against Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest. (13)
Galactagogue / Bangun-bangun Leaves: Participants in an Indonesian of study of Batakneese women were given bangun-bangun soup during their nursing period, most consuming a bowl of soup three times daily for 30-40 days. The study aimed to gather information about the women's beliefs and experiences in the use of the herb. The participants felt their breasts become full with breast milk. Most felt consuming CA leaves helped control postpartum bleeding and help "uterine cleansing." (14)
Anthelmintic / Antimicrobial: A chloroform and methanol extract of leaf and leaf oil showed significant anthelmintic activity. The plant extracts also showed antibacterial activity against test organisms, with very poor antifungal activity. (15)
Effects on Cell Viability / Flavonoids: A cell viability assay revealed an aqueous extra t of C. aromaticus leaves and methanolic extract of Annona squamosa leaves to show significant results. Total flavonoid contents were 2.60% and 2.4% respectively. (18)
Wound Healing / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated wound healing activity of aqueous extract of leaves and roots of C. aromaticus in excisional wound model in albino rats. A ten percent ointment of aqueous extract of root showed complete epithelization after 12 days, while a 5% ointment of leaf extract showed complete healing after 16 days. (19)
Diuretic Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated a water extract of leaves for diuretic activity in male albino rats. Results showed significant increase in urine output and electrolytes concentration. (20)
Forskolin / Healing / Lung Protective: Study evaluated antioxidant potency of forskolin for protective action in lung damage in rats caused by ova albumin. Results showed forskolin exhibited better antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation induced by ova albumin and aluminum hydroxide. (22)
Hepatoprotective Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of P. amboinicus against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results showed significant alteration of paracetamol induced changes in the serum and tissue enzymes to near normal values, together with improvement of histopathology profile. (24)
Antibacterial Against Enteric Pathogens: Alcoholic leaf extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against enteric pathogens such as Shigella sp., Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli. (25)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the effect of Coleus aromaticus leaves on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme levels in alloxan rendered diabetic rats. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly lowered the alloxan mediated hyperglycemia. Activity of antioxidant enzymes such as DOD, CAT, and GPxase were increased in liver homogenate of diabetic animals treated with the extracts. (26)
Antineoplastic / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study showed the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus at a dose of 200 mg/k produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. (28)
Phenolic Content / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study for phenolic contents of crude leaf extracts yielded phenolics like caffeic acid, coumaric acid, rutin, quercetin and gallic acid. An acetone extract showed higher antibacterial activity than an EA extract, both showing highest activity against B. cereus. Both extracts showed inhibitory effect on cancer cell lines HCT-15 and MCF-7. (29)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antitumor / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves. Results showed significant decreases in paw edema in the carrageenan method and inhibition of growth of sarcoma-180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumors in mice. (30)
Antifungal / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties of a methanol extract of leaf in Balb/c mice models. Results showed significant antifungal activity compared with standard antifungal drug Fluconazole. Results also showed significant reduction of inflammation when compared to standard drug Diclofenac. (31)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial: Study synthesized silver nanoparticles from the aqueous extract of P. amboinicus. The silver nanoparticles outperformed silver nitrate and plant extracts in antimicrobial effect on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus sp. and Candida albicans. (32)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: In-vivo and in-vitro study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. Results showed inhibition of pain induced by acetic acid and formalin and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The effects were mediated by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory mediators through blocking NF-xB activation. (33)
Toxicological Evaluation: Study for acute and sub-acute toxic effects of the aqueous leaf extract in albino mice showed a high LD50 value. No mortalities were observed during acute and subacute toxicity study periods. However, the extract caused treatment-related toxicological abnormalities with increased dosage (necrosis of hepatic cells with generalized congestion in renal cortex, pneumonitis, and sloughing of intestinal villi). Results suggest the aqueous extract is safe as indicated by high LD50, but should be used with caution at high doses. (34)
Anti-Urolithic: Study evaluated the antilithiotic activity of fresh juice of leaves of Pl amboinicus. Urine and histopathological results showed antilithiotic activity, particularly of calcium oxalate origin. (35)
Antimalarial / Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the toxicity and antiplasmodial properties of P. amboinicus. Acute oral toxicity test revealed no mortality or evidence of adverse effects in the treated mice. Different extract doses tested against Plasmodium berghei showed significant reduction of parasitemia in the in-vivo prophylactic assay. (36)
Neuroprotective / Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity : Study investigated the neuroprotective effect of PA in aluminum induced neurotoxicity in rats. Treatment showed significant attenuation of lipid peroxidation and reversed the decrease in brain CAT and GSH levels. Results suggest a potential role in the management of Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress. (37)
Cytotoxic and DNA Protecting / Essential Oil of Leaves: Essential oil of leaves showed cytotoxicity against breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HT-29) cancer cell lines, protected against 75% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells, and significant concentration dependent reduction in MMP-9 production
. Results suggest the essential oil is a potent bioactive substance with potential for use in herbal medicinal preparations. (38)
Larvicidal / Antimalarial / Anopheles stephensi / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of P. amboinicus is an inexpensive and ecofriendly source of a natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. (see constituents above) (39)
Antidiabetic / Effect on Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzyme: Study explored the possible mechanisms of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed an antihyperglycemic effect with dose-dependent reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase). Results suggest the antidiabetic activity of PA was mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities. (40)
• Potential in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of P. amboinicus in treating Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in a rat model. P. amboinicus significantly inhibited footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms in collagen-induced arthritic rats, while serum anti-collagen IfM and CRP levels were consistently decreased, together with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFR-a, IL-6, and IL-1ß. Results demonstrated the potential anti-arthritic effect of PA in treating RA. (43)
• Antibacterial / Potential for Food Preservation: Study evaluated extracts of leaves in preventing spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat through its effect on nucleic acid leakage from bacterial cells and degradation of bacterial cell wall. Results showed the potential use of ethyl acetate and acetone extracts or Indian borage leaves in food preservation. (44)
• Activity Against MRSA Skin Abscesses: Study evaluated the effectiveness of P. amboinicus against MRSA clinical isolates. An ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciproflloxacin. There was a significant reduction in abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries and inflammatory scores. Results showed effectiveness of PA fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays. (45)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Proliferative on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Crude ethanolic extracts of P. amboinicus showed antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells lines which may be attributed to the presence of n-Hexadecanoic acid and phytol. (46)
• Interference of Essential Oil on Anti-Candida Activity of Antifungals: Study showed that essential oil of P. amboinicus can interfere with the effectiveness of some clinically used antifungals, mainly itraconazole and ketoconazole. (47)
• Phenolic Constituents / Toxicity Profile: Study investigated the active principles in a hydroalcoholic extract and brine shrimp lethality assay for toxicity profile. HPLC screening of ethyl acetate fraction of hydroalcoholic extract yielded flavonoids such as rutin, quercetin, luteolin, and gallic acid. The fraction also showed good acute oral toxicity effect with LC50 value of 198.630 µg/ml. (48)
• Anticancer / ß-Sitosterol / Leaves: ß-Sitosterol, a steroid from P. amboinicus, showed activity in inhibition of cancer growth toward T47D, MCF-7, HeLa, and WiDr cell lines through P13K, EGFR, ER-a, ER-ß, and HER-2 pathways. Results suggest potential of ß-sitosterol as an anticancer agent. (49)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from P. amboinicus against the denaturation of protein in vitro. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory effect which may be attributed to polyphenolic content and may be a synergistic activity rather than a single compound. (50)
• Anticancer / HeLa Cell Lines: Study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of P. amboinicus using MTT assay. All three extracts showed cytotoxic effect to HeLa cells with IC50 of 76.322 µg/ml, 143.291 µg/ml, and 88.997 µg/ml, respectively. n-Hexane and ethanol extracts were selective to HeLa cells. (51)
• Phytotoxicity / Leaf Essential Oil / Potential as Bioherbicides: Study evaluated the essential oil of P. amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, on germination and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and on its action on cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. Results showed the essential oil of P. amboinicus, carvacroal and thumol have potential for use as bioherbicides. (52)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial Activity on Polypropylene Non Woven Surgical Mask: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using silver nitrate and utilizing leaves extract of P. amboinicus. Non-woven polypropylene fabric treated with P. amboinicus herbal extracts showed good antimicrobial activity, air permeability and bacterial filtration efficiency. (53)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated for condiment and culinary use.
 

Updated June 2017 / May 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Sprengel [as Coleus amboinicus Lour.] Addisonia, vol. 20: t. 646 (1937) [M. Sorensen] / Illustration contributed by the Missouri Botanical Garden / www.plantillustrations / PlantGeneraOrg

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Recent uses / Philippine Inquirer. Monica Feria. Oct 6, 2007
(2)
Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation / B S Satish Rao et al / Mutagenesis 2006 21(4):237-242; doi:10.1093/mutage/gel023 /
(3)
Mast cell stabilization property of Coleus aromaticus leaf extract in rat peritoneal mast cells / Kumar A et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 39, No. 2, March-April, 2007, pp. 119-120/
(4)
Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against Microbes Of Reproductive Tract Infections Among Women

(5)
Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus / A Kumran and R Joel Karunakaran / Food Chemistry • Volume 97, Issue 1, July 2006, Pages 109-114 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.032
(6)
Efficiency of Coleus aromaticus extract in modifying cyclophosphamide and mitomycin-C induced clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow cells / Prassad Naik P and Vijayalaxmi K K / Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Sep;40(9):1020-5.
(7)
Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albican and Streptococcu mutans / Devi Rianti and Sri Yogyarti / Dept of Dental Material and Technology . Faculty of Dentistry. Airlangga Univerisity. Surabaya, Indonesia

(8)
Screening of antiinflammatory activity of coleus aromaticus / Neelam Begum, C Mayuren, K Sateesh et al / international journal of chemical sciences, bapatla colege of pharmacy, Volume 7, Issue 4, bapatla, p.2384-2388 (2009)
(9)
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COLEUS AROMATICUS LEAVES / Subhas Chandrappa M, harsha R et al / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN- 0975-1491, Vol 2, Issue 3, 2010
(10)
Coleus aromaticus Benth act as an immunostimulant in Channa marulius Hamilton
(11)
PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FORSKOLIN ISOLATED FROM COLEUS AROMATICUS ON THE LUNG DAMAGE RATS / D Srinivasa Rao, V Prasada Rao and K R S Sambisiva Rao / PHARMANEST
Vol.1 (1) Sep-Oct-2010 An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences
(12)
Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Different Parts of Coleus amboinicus lour., Lamiaceae / K K Hullatti, Prasenjit Bhattacharjee / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.24.8
(13)
Studies on essential oils, Part 33: chemical and insecticidal investigations on leaf oil of Coleus amboinicus Lour. / Gurdip Singh1, Om Prakash Singh, Y. R. Prasad, M. P. de Lampasona, C. Catalan / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 17, Issue 6, pages 440–442, November/December 2002 / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1123
(14)
Consumption of bangun-bangun leaves (Coleus amboinicus Lour) to increase breast milk production among Batakneese women in North Sumatra Island, Indonesia / R Damanik, N Damanik, Z Daulay, S Saragih, R Premier, N Wattanapenpaiboon, ML Wahlqvist / Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia (2001) 25
(15)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING , ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTHELMINTHIC STUDIES ON COLEUS AROMATICUS BENTH. / Prameela T S, Oommen P Saj / Internationl Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, June 2011, Vol 3, No 4, Article 14.
(16)
Phytochemical study of essential oil from the aerial parts of Coleus aromaticus Benth. / Tewari G1, Pande C, Kharkwal G, Singh S, Singh C. / Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(2):182-5. / doi: 10.1080/14786419.2011.574135.
(17)
Carvacrol Rich Essential Oils of Coleus aromaticus (Benth.) from Western Ghats Region of North West Karnataka, India / Joshi, R.K, Badakar, V. and Kholkute, S.D. / Advances in Environmental Biology, 5(6): 1307-1310, 2011
(18)
Evaluation of Leaves of Aqueous Extract of Coleus Aromaticus and Methanolic Extract of Annona Squamosa Extracts on Cell Viability / Himesh Soni*, A. K. Singhai, Sarvesh Sharma, Jitender K Malik / American Journal of PharmTech Research
(19)
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF LEAVES AND ROOTS OF COLEUS AROMATICUS IN RATS / ANAND K. JAIN*, ASHISH DIXIT and SWAROOP C. MEHTA / Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica ñ Drug Research, Vol. 69 No. 6, pp. 1119-̃1123, 2012
(20)
DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF COLEUS AROMATICUS BENTH ON RATS / T. K. Sur, S. Pandit, T.K. Biswas, R.B. Ghosh, D. Bhattacharyya / Ancient Science of Life Vol : XXII(4) April, May, June 2003
(21)
PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS): A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES
/ Om Prakash Rout, Rabinarayan Acharya, Sagar Kumar Mishra, Rashmibala Sahoo / International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol 3, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2012
(22)
PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FORSKOLIN ISOLATED FROM COLEUS AROMATICUS ON THE LUNG DAMAGE RATS / D. SRINIVASA RAO*, V.PRASADA RAO and K.R.S.SAMBISIVA RAO / An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.1 (1) Sep-Oct-2010
(23)
Sorting Plectranthus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(24)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Plectranthus amboinicus against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats / Smita Shenoy, Hemanth Kumar, Veena Nayak et al / Int J of Pharmacol and Clin Sci, 2012;1:32-8.
(25)
Phytochemical Screening of Coleus aromaticus and Leucas aspera and Their Antibacterial Activity against Enteric Pathogens / B. Shiney ramya*, P. Ganesh and R. Suresh Kumar / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(1):162-166
(26)
ANTIIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF COLEUS AROMATICUS LEAF EXTRACTS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Subhas Candrappa M∗, Shivakumar Hugar, Itgappa M,Nagarajappa K / Pharmacologyonline 3: 1054-1061 (2009)
(27)
Oregano / Wikipedia
(28)
Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma. /
Brandao EM1, Brandão PH, Souza IA, Paiva GS, de C Carvalho M, Lacerda CM. / J Cancer. 2013 Aug 20;4(7):573-6. / doi: 10.7150/jca.6730.
(29)
Phenolic constituents and biological activities of leaf extracts of traditional medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus Benth (Lamiaceae) / Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Praveena Bhatt, Gilbert Joseph, Pradeep Negi, Mandyam Chakravarthy Varadaraj / TANG 11/2013; 3(4) DOI: 10.5667/tang.2013.0027
(30)
In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of leaves from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Lamiaceae). / Gurgel, A. P. A. D.; Silva, J. G. da; Grangeiro, A. R. S.; Oliveira, D. C.; Lima, C. M. P.; Silva, A. C. P. da; Oliveira, R. A. G.; Souza, I. A. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 Vol. 125 No. 2 pp. 361-363 / DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2009.07.006
(31)
ANTIFUNGAL, ANTI­INFLAMMATORY AND GC – MS ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS LEAF / A.MANJAMALAI, YASASWINI NARALA, AISWARYA HARIDAS, V.M. BERLIN GRACE* / International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2011
(32)
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF GREEN SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS / Nameirakpam Nirjanta Devi*, P. Dheeban Shankar, W. Femina, T. Paramasivam / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 12, Issue 1, January – February 2012
(33)
Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo / Yung-Jia Chiu, Tai-Hung Huang, Chuan-Sung Chiu, Tsung-Chun Lu, Ya-Wen Chen, Wen-Huang Peng, and Chiu-Yuan Chen / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/508137
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Chemical composition and Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour. Spreng / Savina Asiimwe, Anna-Karin Borg- Karlsson, Muhammad Azeem, Kamatenesi Maud Mugisha, Agnes Namutebi and Ndukui James Gakunga / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Volume 3 Issue 2, February 2014, PP.19-27
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Modulatory effect of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour. on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rats / M. Alvin Jose, Ibrahim, S. Janardhanan / Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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Antimalarial activity of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus against Plasmodium berghei / Norazsida Ramli, Pakeer Oothuman Syed Ahamed, Hassan Mohamed Elhady, Muhammad Taher / Pharmacognosy Research, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pp 280-284
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PROTECTIVE ROLE OF PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS IN ALUMINIUM-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY / RAJATHI. K, S. SUJA & T. INDHUMATHI / International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJMPS), Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 13-20
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Evaluation of cytotoxic, DNA protecting and LPS induced MMP-9 down regulation activities of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. essential oil / Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan,*, Gunasekar Ramya, Madhusudhanan Gogulramnath, Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar, M.S. Kanthimathi / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2015; 7(1):32-36 / doi:10.5530/pj.2015.1.3
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Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito / Annadurai Senthilkumar, Venugopalan Venkatesalu / Parasitology Research, October 2010, Volume 107, Issue 5, pp 1275-1278
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Alcoholic leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus regulates carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats / B. C. Koti, Aparna Gore, A. H. M. Thippeswamy, A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy, and Rucha Kulkarni / Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 May-Jun; 43(3): 286–290. / doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.81520
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Plectranthus amboinicus / Synonyms / The Plant List
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Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance / Greetha Arumugam, Mallappa Kumara Swamy* and Uma Rani Sinniah * / Molecules 2016, 21, 369 / doi:10.3390/molecules21040369
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Potential Use of Plectranthus amboinicus in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis / Jia-Ming Chang, Chun-Ming Cheng, Le-Mei Hung, Yuh-Shan Chung, and Rey-Yuh Wu / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 Mar; 7(1): 115–120. / . doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem168
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Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat / Sandeep Kumar Gupta and Pradeep Singh Negi / Food Technol Biotechnol. 2016 Mar; 54(1): 90–102. / doi: 10.17113/ftb.54.01.16.3973
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Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses / Francisco Fábio Martins de Oliveira, Alba Fabiola Torres, Thially Braga Gonçalves, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro Santiago, Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho, Milena Braga Aguiar, Lilia Maria Carneiro Camara, Silvia Helena Rabenhorst, Alice Maria Costa Martins, José Telmo Valença Junior, and Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/291592
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In Vitro antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extract on MCF-7 cell line / Bowya Mohan, Sivakumar Ramalingam*, Renuka Saravanan and Dheeba B. / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (12):1-9
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Interference of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on the anti-Candida activity of some clinically used antifungals / Rinalda de Araújo G. de OliveiraI; Edeltrudes de O. LimaII; Evandro L. de SouzaIII; Wellington L. VieiraII; Kristerson R. L. FreireII; Vinícius N. TrajanoII; Igara O. LimaII; Raimundo N. Silva-FilhoI / Rev. bras. farmacogn., Vol 17, No.2, João Pessoa, Apr-June 2007 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2007000200009
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ACTIVE PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY ASSAY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS / DAYANA JANAKIRAMAN, PARAMESWARI CS* / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 10, Issue 2, 2017
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ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF Β-SITOSTEROL FROM PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS (LOUR. SPRENG.) LEAVES: IN VITRO AND IN SILICO STUDIES / POPPY ANJELISA Z HASIBUAN*, PANAL SITORUS, DENNY SATRIA / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 10, Issue 5, 2017
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Evaluation of Anti inflammatory effect of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract - An invitro study
/ Dayana Janakiraman, Chettancherry Somasundaram Parameswari* / Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, Vol 4, Issue 2, Apr-Jun 2014
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Cytotoxic Effect of n-Hexane, Ethylacetate and Ethanol Extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng.) on HeLa and Vero Cells Lines / Rosidah, Poppy Anjelisa Z. Hasibuan* / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.6, No.6, pp 1806-1809, Oct-Nov 2014
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Phytotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, Carvacrol, and Thymol in Plant Bioassays / Patrícia Fontes Pinheiro*, Adilson Vidal Costa, Thammyres de Assis Alves, Iasmini Nicoli Galter, Carlos Alexandre Pinheiro, Alexandre Fontes Pereira, Carlos Magno Ramos Oliveira, and Milene Miranda Praça Fontes / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2015, 63 (41), pp 8981–8990
/ DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03049
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Synthesis of Silver Nano Particles Using Plectranthus Ambonicus and Its Antimicrobial Activity on Polypropylene Non Woven Surgical Mask / Parveen Banu .K, Vidhya. M / International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol 5, Issue 9, Sept 2016

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