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Family Anacardiaceae
Libas
Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz.
COMMON HOG PLUM

Wai mu ge

Scientific names Common names
Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz. Lannu (Cagayan)
Spondias acuminata Roxb. Lano (Cagayan)
Spondias mangifera Willd. Libas (Tag., Zamboanga)
Mangifera pinnata L. f. Lubas (Bik.)
  Common hog plum (Engl.)
  Indian mombin (Engl.)
  Wild mango (Engl.)
  Wai mu ge (Chin.)
Libas is a common name shared by (1) Spondias pinnata (2) Salix tetrasperma (3) Balbas-bakiro (Momordica cochinchinensis) (4) Ligas (Semecarpus cuneiformis).

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Aamrata, Amora.
BENGALI: Aamada, Aamraata, Aamraataka, Amra.
CHINESE: Bin lang qing, Mu ge, Zhao wa wen po.
GERMAN: Mangopflaume.
GUJARATI: Ambaada.
HINDI: Ambara, Ambari, Amra, Amara, Bhringi-phal, Metula, Pashu-haritaki,Pitan.
JAPANESE: Amura tamagonoki.
KANNADA: Amategayi mara, Ambatte mara, Marahunsie, Muthiga.
MALAYALAM: Ambazham.
MARATHI: Amada, Ambada, Dholamba, Khatamba, Ranamba.
NEPALESE: Amaaro.
ORIYA: Ambaada.
PORTUGUESE: Cajamangueira, Cajá-manga, Imbú manga.
SANSKRIT: Aamraata, Amraatakah, Metula, Pitan.
SPANISH: Ciruela mango, Jobo de la India, Mango jobo.
TAMIL: Ambalam, Ambazham, Kincam, Pulima.
TELUGU: Adavimamidi, Adhvamu, Ambalamu.
THAI: Makok, Má kok pa.

Botany
Libas is a tree reaching a height of about 25 meters and a diameter of about 60 centimeters. Bark surface is smooth, with irregular cracks, grey to pale reddish brown, exuding a clear, sticky sap with a turpentine smell. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 20 centimeters or more in length. Leaflets are pointed at the apex, rounded or abruptly pointed at the base, 7 to 14 centimeters in length. Flowers are small and in panicles. Fruit is rounded, yellow, a one-seeded drupe, with a finely flavored, edible pulp.

Distribution
- In primary forests at low altitudes.
- Occasionally planted as a shade tree.
- Widespread from India to Celebes and the Moluccas.

Constituents
- Phytochemical studies have yielded flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids.
- Essential oil from the pulp yielded carboxylic acids and esters, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons. The major compounds were 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (36.78%), hexadecanoic acid (25.27%) and furfural (19.77%).
- Study isolated 24-methylene cycloartanone, stigma-4en-3one, lignoceric acid, β-sitosterol and its β-D-glucoside.
(10)
- Fruits yield ß-amyrin, oeanolic acid, glycine, cystine, serine, alanine, and leucine. Aerial parts yield lignoceric acid, ß-sitosterol and its glucoside.

Properties
- Used traditionally as anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and to regulate menstruation.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.

Uses
Culinary
- Young leaves, flowers, and fruits are edible.
- Leaves and fruits are sour and used in stews and the filling for the fish dish "sinanglay," a Bicolano delicacy.
- Dried young leaves used for laing.
- Fruits eaten raw; can be made into jams, jellies and juices.
Folkloric
- Bark, leaves and fruits used the treatment of burns, sores and wounds.
- Bark used for treatment of diabetes.
- Used for dysentery and diarrhea, rheumatism, vomiting.
- Unripe fruit used as aphrodisiac.
- Ripe fruits used as antiscorbutic.
Others
Wood:
Used for various carpentry application – mouldings, interior finishing, turnery, carvings, etc. Because of lightness, suitable for manufacture of matchsticks, matchboxes, boxes and crates.

Studies
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity:
Study showed the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of the stem heartwood of Spondias pinnata possess hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotective activity could be due to the presence of bioflavonoids. (1)
Laxative / Diuretic: Study on chloroform and methanol extracts of the bark of Spondias pinnata produced significant diuretic and laxative activity. The petroleum extract did not reveal significant activity. (2)
Hypoglycemic: Study on adult Wistar albino rats showed the methanol extract to have promising results comparable to standard reference glibenclamide. Phytochemicals showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids.
(3)
Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity: Extract showed excellent scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power. A chloroform extract showed moderate antibacterial activity against eight microorganisms. An ethanol extract showed cytotoxicity with an LC50 of 65 and LC90 of 160. (7)
Anthelmintic: In a comparative extract study for anthelmintic activity, all extracts of both acetone and ethanol extracts showed anthelmintic activities than standard drugs, with the ethanol extract showing better activity than the acetone extract. (8)
Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of stem-bark extract using various assays showed it to be a potential source of natural antioxidants. (9)
Hepatoprotectivre / Iron Overload Liver Toxicity: Study of a methanol extract of Spondias pinnata showed hepatoprotective activity in iron-intoxicated mice, suggesting a potential use as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases. (11)
Antimicrobial / Resin: Antimicrobial activity of resin of S. pinnata tested on various organisms showed maximum activity on Bacillus subtilis, a Gm+ bacteria. (12)
Antibacterial: Study of ethanolic extract of pulp showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antifungal activity against C. albicans and Aspergillus flavus.
Antibacterial / Stem Bark: Study of Methanolic extract of stem back showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. mirabilis at a concentration of 128 µg/ml. (13)
Hypoglycemic Activity / Root: Study evaluated various extracts of roots of Spondias mangifera for hypoglycemic activity in adult Wistar albino rats, with glibenclamide as reference standard. Results showed dose-dependent reduction of blood glucose concentration. Results suggest extra-pancreatic effects and justifies the use of roots in the folklore treatment of diabetes. (14)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update May 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Image of Anacardiaceae Spondias pinnata / Photo / Leaves / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL42380] / Image at PhytoImages.siu.edu Click on graphic to see original image
IMAGE SOURCE: / Image of Anacardiaceae Spondias pinnata / Photo / Young fruit / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL42374] / Image at PhytoImages.siu.edu Click on graphic to see original image
IMAGE SOURCE: / Image of Anacardiaceae Spondias pinnata / Photo /Flowers / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL42376] / Image at PhytoImages.siu.edu Click on graphic to see original image
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE:: GRAPHIC: Digitally modified image from Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / Wild Food Plants of the Philippines / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Fig 53 / Spondias pinnata (Libas) / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Investigation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Spondias pinnata / B. Ganga Rao et al / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), Vol.1(3), 2010, 193-198
(2)
Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz / S Mondal, GK Dash et al / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 19 | Page : 28-31
(3)
Hypoglycemic activity of the bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. kurz. / S Mondal, GK Dash / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 19 | Page : 42-45
(4)
RESEARCH INFORMATION SERIES ON ECOSYSTEMS, Lesser Known Edible Tree Species / Compiled by Helen Florido and Fe Cortiguerra / Volume 15 No. 3 / September – December 2003
(5)
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE PULP OF Spondias pinnata Kurz. / Sukanya Keawsa-ard et al / 35th Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand
(6)
Sorting Spondias names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(7)
Chloroform and Ethanol Extract of Spondias pinata and its Different Pharmacological Activity Like Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antibacterial Potential and Phytochemical Screening through In-Vitro Method / Joysree Das, Adnan Mannan, Md. Mominur Rahman, Md. Abu Monsur Dina, Muhammad Erfan Uddin, Irfan Newaz Khan, Md. Razibul Habib, Nahid Hasan / Internation Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol. 2(4) Oct - Dec 2011
(8)
Comparative Study of Anthelmintic Activity Between Acetone and Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn.f) Kurz / Panda B K, Patro V J, Mishra U S, Panigrahi B K / IJRAP 2011, 2(4) 1383-1385.
(9)
Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata. / Bibhabasu Hazra, Santanu Biswas, Nripendranath Mandal / Research Gate
(10)
STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA / Sheela Tandon, R. P. Rastogi / Planta Med 1976; 29(2): 190-192 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1097651
(11)
Spondias pinnata stem bark extract lessens iron overloaded liver toxicity due to hemosiderosis in Swiss albino mice. / Hazra B, Sarkar R, Mandal N. / Ann Hepatol. 2013 Jan-Feb;12(1):123-9.
(12)
Antimicrobial activity of Spondias pinnata resin / Vinod Kumar Gupta, Amit Roy*, Vikas K Nigam and Kalishankar Mukherjee / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(16), pp. 1656-1661, 18 August, 2010 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.182
(13)
Antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of stem bark of Spondias pinnata, Moringa oleifera and
Alstonia scholaris
/ Bolin Chetia * and Satyabrat Gogoi / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2011, 6 (4)
(14)
Studies on Hypoglycaemic Activity of the Different Extracts of Spondias mangifera willd. Root / S. Acharyya et al / Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Vol. 2 (3), 2010, 184-190


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