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Family Malpighiaceae
Kuisia
Galphimia glauca Cav.

SLENDER GOLDEN SHOWER
Jin ying

Scientific names  Common names
Galphimia glauca (Cav.) Kusia (Tag.)
Malphigia glauca (Cav.) Pers. Golden thryallis (Engl.)
Malphigia glauca (Cav.) Poir. Rain of gold (Engl.)
Thryallis glauca (Cav.) Kuntze Slender golden shower (Engl.)
  Spray of gold (Engl.)
  Thriallis (Engl.)
  Thryallis (Engl.)
Golden shower is an English common name shared by (1) Spectacular cassia, Cassia spectabilis (2) Flame flower, Pyrostegia venusta (3) Kuisia, Glaphimia glauca (4) Kanya pistula, pudding pipe tree, Cassia fistula
Galphimia glauca Cav. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jin ying.
MEXICAN: Calderona amarilla, Flor estrella, Hierba del cuervo, Ojo de gallina, Hierbo de desprecio.

Botany
Kuisia is a small, erect, glabrous and branching shrub, growing to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are glossy green, opposite, up to 3 centimeters long, petioled, ovate, with a rounded tip. Flowers are in clusters, fragrant, bright yellow, up to 1.5 centimeters across, in clusters of 4 to 6 at the stem tips.

Distribution
- Popularly cultivated in towns and cities.
- Makes a good hedge plant.
- Flowers year-round.

- Native to Mexico.

Uses
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In Latin American traditional medicine, used for asthma and allergies.
• In Mexican traditional medicine, used as a sedative and tranquilizer for mental disorders and nervous excitement.

Studies
Homeopathic Proving: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences, certain symptoms were observed, i.e., relaxing, sedative, anxiolytic and anti-allergic. Results confirmed toxicological and clinical effects of Galphimia glauca compared to placebo, but not enough to satisfy the ICCH criteria for distinguishing between specific and unspecific symptoms. (1)
Bronchoconstriction inhibition / Asthma: The ethylacetate fraction of the aerial parts significantly and selectively inhibited the bronchoconstriction induced by leukotrine D4 (LTD4). (2)
Anxiolytic / Galphimine B: Study has yielded an active principle, galphimine B (GB, a nor-seco-triterpene). Aqueous extract of Gg showed anxiolytic effectiveness, similar to that produced by lorazepam, but with regards side effects, Gg showed a higher tolerability than lorazepam.
(3)
Anxiolytic / Galphimine B: Study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of galphimine B, A and E. Results showed the GRF (galphamine-rich fraction) had activity similar to the most active pure glaphamines (1 and 2), and the main determining factor for anxiolytic activity was the presence of free hydroxyl groups at C4,6,and 7 and the double bond A ring. (7)
Anxiolytic / Friedelanes: Studies have isolated the anxiolytic and sedative principle consisting of a mixture of norsecofriedelanes, named the galphimine series. (6)
Hay Fever / Pollinosis: Study comparing Galphimia glauca to placebo in the treatment of pollinosis showed a significant superiority of Gg over placebo, with effects comparable to those of conventional antihistamines but with no side effects. (4)
Toxicological / Cytotoxic: Study of extracts have yielded different triterpenes: galphimines. Galphimine B possess anxiolytic activity and selectively inhibits dischargers of dopaminergic neurons in rats. This study saw no deaths, no histopath changes; behavioral parameters showed a diminution of spontaneous activity. All the extracts inhibited colon cancer cell line growth with no genotoxic effect. (5)
Phytochemicals / Weak Anti-Protozoal Activity: Study isolated four new terpenoids with the known sterols and flavonol quercetin. Quercetin was the only isolate that showed any antiprotozoal activity, and weak at that. (6)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder / Clinical Trial / Comparison with Lorazepam: Study of G. glauca herbal medicinal product, standardized in 0.175 mg of glaphimine-B and administered for 15 weeks to patients with generalized anxiety disorder, showed greater anxiolytic effectiveness compared with lorazepam, with a high percentage of therapeutic tolerability and safety. (9)
Re-Analysis of Homeopathic Use for Hay Fever: An earlier meta-analysis reached a positive conclusion regarding use of GC for hay fever. This findings from this reanalysis seem to suggest efficacy, however, important caveats prevent any firm conclusions and casts doubts on the reliability of conclusion of the published meta-analysis. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: In a bio-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory compounds from extracts of leaves of G. glauca, the hexane extract showed to have the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. (13)

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Ornamental cultivation.

Pellets, extracts and supplements in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update August 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
A homoeopathic proving of Galphimia glauca / Teut M, Dahler J, Schnegg C / Forsch Komplementmed. 2008 Aug;15(4):211-7. Epub 2008 Aug 15.
(2)
Galphimia glauca organic fraction antagonizes LTD4-induced contraction in guinea pig airways
/ María G. Campos et al /Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 74, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 7-15 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00322-6
(3)
Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized herbal product from Galphimia glauca on generalized anxiety disorder. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial controlled with lorazepam / HERRERA-ARELLANO Armando et al / Planta medica • 2007, vol. 73, no8, pp. 713-71
(4)
A meta-analysis of homeopathic treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca / Lüdtke, R et al / Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift • 1997-; vol 147 (issue 14) : pp 323-7
(5)
Toxicological and cytotoxic evaluation of standardized extracts of Galphimia glauca / Lucía Aguilar-Santamaría et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 109, Issue 1, 3 January 2007, Pages 35-40 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.06.013
(6)
Assessment of the Antiprotozoal Activity of Galphimia glauca and the Isolation of New Nor-secofriedelanes and Nor-friedelanes / Maria del Rayo Camacho et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (10), pp 1457–1461
DOI: 10.1021/np010419i
(7)
Anxiolytic Effect of Natural Galphimines from Galphimia glauca and their Chemical Derivatives / Maribel Herrera-Ruiz et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (1), pp 59–61 / DOI: 10.1021/np050305x
(8)
Metabolic Profiling of the Mexican Anxiolytic and Sedative Plant Galphimia glauca Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis / Cardoso-Taketa, Alexander et al / Planta medica, 2008, vol. 74, no10, pp. 1295-130
(9)
Therapeutic effectiveness of Galphimia glauca vs. lorazepam in generalized anxiety disorder. A controlled 15-week clinical trial. / Herrera-Arellano A, Jiménez-Ferrer JE, Zamilpa A, García-Alonso G, Herrera-Alvarez S, Tortoriello J. / Planta Med. 2012 Sep;78(14):1529-35. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
(10)
Thryallis gracilis Kuntze (accepted name) / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(11)
Galphimia glauca / Synonyms / The Plant List
(12)
Homeopathic Galphimia glauca for hay fever: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials and a critique of a published meta-analysis / Edzard Ernst / Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies
Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 200–203, September 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7166.2011.01084.x
(13)
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS FROM Galphimia glauca AND THEIR ROLE IN THE METABOLOMIC PROFILING / Emma Rocío Medellín Cardoso, María Luisa Villarreal Ortega, Alexandre Cardoso-Taketa

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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