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Family Gleicheniaceae
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Underw.
Mang qi

Scientific names  Common names
Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh. Gapingoi (Bon.)
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Underw. Kilob (Tag.)
Gleichenia ferruginea Blume Tilub (Tag.)
Gleichenia hermanni R. Br. Tangle fern (Engl.)
Gleichenia linearis (Burm.f.) C.B.Clarke Umbrella fern (Engl.)
Gleichenia hermanni R. Br. Linear forked fern (Engl.)
Mertensia lessonii A. Rich. Old world forkedfern (Engl.)
Mertensia linearis (Burm.f.) Fritsch False staghorn (Engl.)
Mertensia rufinervis Mart.  
Platyzoma ferrugineum Desv.  
Platyzoma latum Desv.  
Polypodium lineare Burm.f.  
Polypodium pedatum Houtt..  
Pteris platylata Christenh.  
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mang qi.
INDIA: Raj hans
JAPANESE: Ko-shida
WEST AFRICAN: Kissi yendon, Mende koye

Kilob is a vigorously creeping ground fern with long branching stems and slender rhizomes, growing up to several meters long, with very large fronds that repeatedly forks, with budlike structures in the forks. Segments are linear or broader. Sori are few and brown on the underside, with no indusium.

- Widely distributed in the Philippines, frequently forming dense tangles in open places in mountains.
- Found throughout the tropics and in Japan and New Zealand; abundant in the Malay Peninsula.

- Study showed the leaves to be a good source of micronutrients.

- Study yielded flavonoids +, triterpenes +, tannins +, saponins +++, steroids +++.
- Phytochemical screening yielded phenols, flavonoids, total sugar, protein, vitamin C, carotenoids, tannin, chlorophyll, reducing sugar, and α-tocopherol. Predominant phenolics were catechin, caffeic, ferulic, salicylic and vanillic acid. (see study below). (17)

- Considered antiasthmatic, febrifuge, anthelmintic.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, roots.

- Study showed the leaves to be a good source of micronutrients.
Young leaves are used as poultice, decoction or infusion for fever.
Plant used as antiasthmatic.
In Indo-China, used as antihelmintic.
Roots of pulasan (Nephelium mutabile) are boiled with G linearis and used for bathing feverish patients.
Used for bloody diarrhea.
In east New Britain, bound externally to wounds, cuts and sores.
In India, young leaves mixed with cow milk used for seven days to remove sterility in women.
In Malaysia, crushed leaves used as poultice to control fever; juice of leaves used in baths for fever.
In Indo-China, plants used to rid of intestinal worms.
In New Guinea, used to treat boils, ulcers and wounds.
- In India, petioles and racheae used thatching huts. Also used as making writing pens.

Antioxidative / Antibacterial: In a study of leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns, G linearis showed to have antioxidative potential and antibacterial activity justifying its use in traditional medicine. (1)

Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic: Study of the chloroform extract of Dicranopteris linearis showed it to possess antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity and justifies its traditional use by the Malays, especially for fever. (4)
Antibacterial: Petroleum, acetone, methanol and water extracts of Dicranopteris linearis exhibited antibacterial activity, maximum with the acetone extract. (5)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study showed leaves of D. linearis possess potential cytotoxic activity against various types of cancer cell lines depending on the types of extracts and their phenolic content. (9)
Antioxidant: Study of aqueous extract of leaves showed antioxidant property, partly through free radical scavenging activity. (10)
Metal Sorbent for Lead Ions Removal: Lead is a heavy metal in industrial wastewater. The use of plant biomass such as fern tree Gleichenia linearis as metal sorbent offers an a potential treatment and removal alternative. Study showed high lead ion removal at 5 mg/L concentration, pH 5 and with smaller sorbent size, <500 um. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Dicranopteris linearis leaf aqueous extract in two models of liver injury in rats induced by paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride. Results showed DLAE possess hepatoprotective activity which could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities, and high flavonoid contents. (14)
Chemopreventive / Leaves / DMBA-Croton Oil-induced Mouse Carcinogenesis: Study evaluated a methanol extract of Dicranopteris linearis for chemoproventive potential in a two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Results showed anti-carcinogenic effect in a dose-dependent manner. (15)
Antimicrobial: Study ev
aluated the antimicrobial activities of extracts of dried leaf powder. Results showed high antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. typhi and antifungal activity against Curvularia lunata, Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergilus niger. (16)
Phytochemical Screening of Bioactive Compounds: Study screened and quantified the phytochemicals present in D. linearis and Pteris vittata. Quantitatively, the phenol, flavonoid, total sugar, protein, vitamin C and carotenoid were higher in Dicranopteris linearis than P. vittata, while tannin, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a & b, reducing sugar and α-tocopherol were higher in P. vittata. Predominant phenolics were catechin, caffeic acid, feruli, salicylic and vanillic acid. (17)
Gastroprotective / Ethanol-Induced Mucosal Injury: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of D. linearis against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in experimental rats. Results showed significant protection of gastric mucosa with increase gastric mucus production and decreased gastric acidity and gross reduction of ulcer area. (18)
Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated various extracts of dried leaves of D. linearis against Hl-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia cell lines) and WRL 68 (normal liver cell line). The methanol extract showed promising cytotoxic activity against HL-60 (IC50=7.9 µg/ml. Fractionation of the methanol extract showed F7 with the best cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 25.12µg/ml. It was found to be non-toxic against normal cells. (19)


Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update November 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Underwood / Leaf close up / © Forest & Kim Starr / Creative Commons Attribution / Click on image to go to source page / EOL Encyclopedia of Life

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidative, Tyrosinase Inhibiting and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extracts from Medicinal Ferns / How Yee Lai et al / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry Vol. 73 (2009) , No. 6 pp.1362-1366
Nutritional composition of uncommon foods and their role in meeting micronutrient needs / Rita S Raghuvanshi et al / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Volume 52, Issue 4 July 2001 , pages 331 - 335
Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Dicranopteris linearis Leaves Chloroform Extract in Experimental Animals / Zainul amiruddin Zakaria et al / YAKUGAKU ZASSHI Vol. 126 (2006) , No. 11 1197-1203
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of an aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves in experimental animal models / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria et al / Journal of Natural Medicines • Volume 62, Number 2 / April, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-007-0224-x

Antibacterial activity of Dicranopteris linearis under in vitro conditions / T Thomas et al / STARS: Int. Journal (Sciences) 2007 • Vol.1, No.2, pp.191-195
Importance of Ferns in Human Medicine / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 231-234. 2007.

Pulasan / Nephelium mutabile Blume / Morton, J. 1987. Pulasan. p. 265–266. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
Ethnobotanical Studies of Some Important Ferns / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 164-172. 2007.
In vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous, chloroform and methanol extracts of Dicranopteris linearis leaves / Z A Zakaria, A M Mohamed, N S Mohd et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (2), pp. 273-282, 10 December, 2011
Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Plants Available in Malaysia / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria / Iranian Journ of Pharma & Thera / Jan 2007 / Vol 6, No 1, 87-91
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Fern Tree (Gleichenia Linearis) As Metal Sorbent For Lead Ions Removal
/ Fairus Muhamad Darus, and Faeiza Buyong, and Suzana Abdullah, (2004) / Analysis Chemistry Malaysia Symposium, 24 – 26 August 2004
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Effect of aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in rats. / Ismail NA, Shamsahal-Din NS, Mamat SS, Zabidi Z, Wan Zainulddin WN, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, Mohtarrudin N, Mohd-Desa MN1, Zakaria ZA / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Jul;27(4):831-5.
Chemopreventive potential of methanol extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaf on DMBA/croton oil-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis / R. Rodzi, Y. L Cheah, K. K. Ooi, F. Othman, N. Mohtarrudin, S. F. Tohid, Z. Suhaili and Z. A. Zakaria* / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol 7(35), pp 2484-2498, Sept 2013 / DOI: 10.5897/AJPP2013.3575
Antimicrobial Studies and Identification of Cellular Components of Dicranopteris Linearis from Tirumala Hills
/ *P. Suvarnalatha Devi, K.Rukmini, Vulasi Indrani, M. Nagalakshmi Devamma / International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, August 2015; 4(8):13-17
Comparative assessment of phytochemicals and HPLC analyses of phenolics present in Dicranopteris linearis (N. Burm.) Underw and Pteris vittata L. / Nishika Jaishee, Usha Chakraborty* / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science Research 2015; 5(1): 1-7
Gastroprotective effects of Dicranopteris linearis leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats / Jamal Hussaini*, Nurul Asyikin Othman, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Halabi Mohd Faroq and Salmah Ismail / Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 7(18), pp. 1761-1767, 16 May, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/SRE11.775
Cytotoxicity activities of Dicranopteris linearis extracts and fractions / N Mat Desa, K Ramasamy, N Ahmat, Z Zakaria / Planta Med 2011; 77 - PM37 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1282795
Polyphenols rich fraction of Dicranopteris linearis promotes fibroblast cell migration and proliferation in vitro.
/ Ponnusamy, Yasodha; Chear, Nelson Jeng-Yeou; Ramanathan, Surash; Lai, Choon-Sheen / Journal Journal of ethnopharmacology / Published online 2015-04-07

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