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Family Connaraceae
Kamagsa
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston
BIG LEAVED ROUREA
Hong ye teng

Scientific names Common names
Aegiceras minus Gaertn. Gikos-gikos (Tag.)
Cnestis erecta Blanco Guraikan (Tag.)
Cnestis florida Jack Hanmababau (Bis., Tag.)
Cnestis glabra Blanco Kamagsa (Tag.)
Cnestis monadelpha DC Kamagsa-tagilis (Tag.)
Connarus roxburghii Hook. & Arn. Kamumin (Tag.)
Connarus santaloides Vahl Magtabig (Bis., Pamp.)
Rourea afselii R.Br. ex Planch. Paragauuk (Ibn.)
Rourea bamangensis De Wild. Big-leaved rourea (Engl.)
Rourea bipindensis Gilg ex G. Schellenb. Cow vine (Engl.)
Rourea gudjuana Gilg  
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston  
Rourea platysepala Baker  
Rourea santaloides (Vahl) Wight & Arn.  
Rourea splendida Gilg  
Santaloides afzelii (R.Br. ex Planch.) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides erectum (Blanco) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides floridum (Jack) Kuntze  
Santaloides gossweileri Exell & Mendonca  
Santaloides gudjuanum (Gilg) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides minus (Gaertn.) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides platysepalum (Baker) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides roxburghii (Hook. & Arn.) Kuntze  
Santaloides splendidum (Gilg) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides gudjuanum (Gilg) Schellenb. ex Engl.  
Santaloides urophyllum G.Schellenb.  
Gikos-gikos is a local common names shared by (1) Rourea erecta and (2) Rourea volubilis, and (3) Saga, Arbus precatorius
Kamagsa is a local common names shared by both (1) Rourea erecta and (2) Rourea volubilis.
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Kurochick shak.
CHINESE: Hong ye teng, Ha ji me wo.
HINDI: Kalavidhara.
MALAYALAM: Cheriyamarikunni, Kuriel.
MALAYSIA: Akar nyamuk, Akar sembelit.
SPANISH: Palo santo.
SRI LANKAN: Kirindi wel, Goda kirindi.
VIETNAMESE: D[ooj]c ch[os], Tr[os]c claar ju.

Botany
Kamagsa is a sprawling shrub or a suberect, woody, smooth vine attaining a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaves are pinnately compound and 15 to 25 centimeters long. Leaflets are 12 to 20, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 4 to 8 centimeters in length. Flowers are white or pink, very numerous, and 5 to 7 millimeters long, and grow on panicles 5 to 15 centimeters long which are borne at the axils of the leaves. Pods are red, about 1 centimeter long, somewhat curved, split down one side, and surrounded at the base by the calyx.

Distribution
- In dry thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium altitudes from northern to central Luzon, and in Lubang, Mindoro, Cuyo, Leyte, Panay, and Bantayan.

- Also occurs from tropical Africa, Madagascar, to Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia throughout Malaysia to northern Australia, New Caledonia, Fiji and Samoa.

Constituents
- Fruit contains an active poison. It has been found very poisonous to dogs but without any effects on guinea pigs. Study suggests the nonpoisonous character of the plant toward herbivora. A study found the poison to be glucosidal in nature.
- Bioassay-directed fractionation of the antimalarial active CHCl(3) extract of the dried stems of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) yielded two glycosides, rourinoside (1) and rouremin (2), as well as five known compounds, 1-(26-hydroxyhexacosanoyl)-glycerol (3), 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E-8Z)-2-N-(2'-hydroxypalmitoyl)-octadecasphinga-4,8-dienine, 9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid, dihydrovomifoliol-9-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. (see study below) (1)

Properties
- Fruit considered poisonous.
- Plant considered aperient, emetic, depurative, tonic, sudorific and purgative.
- Studies have shown antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antimalarial properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- Decoction of fresh or dried leaves used for gastralgia. Also, considered, absorbent.
- Plant considered sudorific and purgative.
- Decoction of roots used as uterine tonic and depurative.
- Roots and twigs used for rheumatism, scurvy, diabetes.
-
Decoction of roots, at one teaspoon or less, used as emetic; exceeding this amount, it is poisonous.
- Wood of the root, pounded, boiled, and mixed with food, known to kill dogs who feed on it.
- In Peninsular Malaysia, plant used as an aperient. Decoction of wood taken for fever and as post-partum medicine. Root rubbed on sore places in the mouth of children with thrush.
- In Bangladesh, leaf infusion drunk to treat diarrhea.
- In Yunnan, China, the Hani ethnic tribe used mashed leaves as dressing in polio. (5)
- In Indo-China, stem bark and leaves used as tonic and diuretic; decoction used as post-partum tonic.   (6)
Others
- Poison: Decoction of roots, mixed with food, will kill dogs and hogs feeding on it. The animals become nauseated or swoon and die.


Studies
Glycosides / Rourinoside and Rouremin / Antimalarial / Stems:
Study of dried stems of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) isolated two glycosides, rourinoside and rouremin, as well as 5 known compounds. Compounds 1-3 showed weak in vitro activities against Plasmodium falcifarum. (see constituents above) (1)
Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic / Roots: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic potential of Rourea minor root in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Acute toxicity study showed good tolerance to single doses as high as 3 g/kg. Results showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in serum glucose level. The ethanol extract was more effective in reducing SG compared to the aqueous extract. Both extracts exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in all tested lipid parameters. (3)
Antihyperglycemic / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and serum insulin augmentation property of a methanolic extract of R. minor roots on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) increment of serum insulin levels and higher reduction of hyperglycemia compared to diabetic control rats. (4)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Effect on Insulin Levels / Roots: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of roots of Rourea minor for effects on serum insulin augmentation and anti-hyperglycemic property on STZ-induced. The diabetes induced rats were feed plant extracts of increasing dosage of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kbw. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) increment of serum levels and higher reduction in hyperglycemic compared to control. (7)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated October 2018 / July 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rourea minor. Vine with young inflorescence / Copyright © 2015 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL101652]/ Non-Commercial Use / image modified by G. Stuart / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rourea minor / Flowering stem / loupok / Creative Commons / Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / image modified by G. Stuart / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Drawing of flowering stem / Rourea minor / Photograph by: Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., Indian medicinal plants, Plates, vol. 2: t. 285 (1918) / Creative Commons / Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Rourinoside and rouremin, antimalarial constituents from Rourea minor / Zhen-Dan He, Cui-Ying Ma et al /

Phytochemistry, Volume 67, Issue 13, July 2006, pp 1378-1384 / doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.04.012
(2)
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Antidiabetic potential of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) root in streptozotocin—induced diabetic rats
/ Preeti Kulkarni, Vishal Patel, S. T. Shukla , Ankur Patel, Venkatrao Kulkarni / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, March 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 69-76
(4)
Anti-hyperglycemic potential of Rourea minor roots in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats / Anu Chaudhary, Anil Bhandari, Dr Pandurangan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, Vol 4, Issue 1, pp 59-62.
(5)
Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants utilised by Hani ethnicity in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China / Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Gerhard Langenberger, Liu Feng, Joachim Sauerborn
(6)
Rourea minor / Useful Tropical Plants
(7)
Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Rourea minor in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. / ANU CHAUDHARY, ANIL BHANDARI, A.PANDURANGAN / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research



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