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Family Asteraceae
Tintatintahan
Eclipta alba
FALSE DAISY
Han lian cao

Other scientific names  Common names 
Anthemis cotula Higis-manok (Tag.) 
Artemisia viridis Higus-manok (Tag.) 
Eclipta erecta  Hugis-manok (Tag.) 
Eclipta parciflora  Karimbuaya (Ilk.) 
Eclipta philippinensis  Karimbuya (Ilk.)
Eclipta prostata  Pia (If.) 
Verbesina alba  Tinta-tinta (Ilk.) 
  Tinta-tintahan (Ilk.) 
  Tultulisan (Ilk.) 
  Vayod (Iv.) 
  Bringraja, bhangra (India)
  Verba de tajo (Span.) 
  Trailing eclipta (Engl.)
  False daisy (Engl.) 
  Han lian cao (Chin.)
   
Tina-tinaan is a common name phonetically and confusingly shared by: (1) Indigofera tinctoria, tina-tinaan (2) Phyllanthus reticulatus, tinatinaan, tintatintahan, malatinta, and (3) Eclipta alba,higus-manok, tinta-tinta


Botany:
Tinta-tintahan is a decumbent, spreading or sometimes suberect, succulent annual herb with bristly hairs. Stems are rather slender, usually reddish and up to 30 cm or more in length. Leaves are linear-oblong to lanceolate, 1 to 5 cm long, without petioles, entire or slightly toothed, and pointed or blunt at the tip. Flower receptacles are scaly, bracts all similar, paleae (scale) of receptacle flat and narrow. Ray flowers female, 2-seriate, fertile or sterile, white, ligule small, narrow, entire or 2-toothed. Disk flowers very numerous, perfect, fertile, tubular, the limb 4- or 5-fid. Flowering heads white, 5 to 6 mm long and about 5 mm in diameter. Fruits are achenes, black, about 3 mm long and smooth or slightly hairy at the tip.

Distribution
Ubiquitous weed in settled areas , in gardens, in open waste places, ditches, rice fileds and low damp lands.

Parts utilized
· Part utilized: whole plant.
· Collect when the vegetative parts are in full bloom. Sun-dry, either whole or cut into pieces.

Constituents
- Plant contains a large amount of resin and an alkaloid ecliptine.
- Studies yielded coumestans, polypeptides, polyacetones, triterpenes and flavonoids.

Properties
- The crushed leaves and broken surface of the vegetative parts produce a black stain.
- Cooling, anodyne, astringent, absorbent, coagulant.
- Root is purgative and emetic.
- Anti-bleeding. A tonic for kidney organ. Tastes sweet-sour.

Uses
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, the leaves and tops brewed in decoction are used in cases of hepatitis. Pounded, they are employed for healing wounds.
· Decoction of Eclipta (15-30 g of dried material) with equal volume of Morus fruit: Used for weakness of the kidney and/or liver causing dizziness, blurring of vision, hematemosis and lumbar pains.
· Decoction of dried or fresh plant material: Used for internal hemorrhage especially bleeding in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (eg, pulmonary tuberculosis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematuria).
· For bleeding due associated with superficial injuries - get fresh plant, crush and use as an emollient over wound to aid in coagulation.
· For bloody stool and urine of any cause: boil 4 to 9 gms of dried drug to decoction and drink twice a day.
· External wash of decoction of 15-30 g dried material: Used for athlete's foot, eczema and dermatitis.
· Dysentery: boil dried drug 15 to 30 gms to decoction and smaller dosage for infants.
· For sprains, furuncle, dermatitis: 15 to 30 gms of dried material in decoction or use pounded fresh material as poultice.
· Fresh plant applied with sesamum oil in elephantiasis; expressed juice taken internally for affections of the liver and in dropsy.
· Poultice of leaves for wound healing.
· In Ayurveda used for epigastric pains, nausa and vomiting in ulcer paitients. Also, used as a liver tonic, and in a variety of chronic skin ailments.
· In Malaya, decoction used for colic.
· In Taiwan, used for bleeding, hemoptysis, hematuria, itching, hepatitis, diphtheria and diarrhea.
· In China, leaf extract used as liver tonic. Also, used as astringent, and for checking hemorrhages and fluxes and fro strengthening the gums. Also, used as vulnerary.
· In China and Brazil, used as anti-venom against snakebites.
· In Brazil, leaves are used as remedy for diarrhea and as black stain for the hair.
· In the Gold Coast leaves are ground and mixed with water, and drunk for constipation.
· In India, used to treat hepatic diseases and hyperlipidemia. In Bombay, used as tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and splenic enlargements, and for various chronic skin diseases.
Others
· Used for tattooing and hair dyeing.
· Pounded leaves with coconut oil used for hair growth.

Studies
Hypoglycemic: Study shows oral administration of a leaf suspension of E alba for 60 days resulted in significant reduction of blood glusoce, HbA1c and other parameters. Results show the oral administration of E alba possess potent antihyperglycemic activity evidenced by significant reduction of liver enzymes and reduction in histopathological changes.
Hepatoprotective: (1)Treatment with ethanol extract of EA protected mice from the hepatotoxic action of paracetamol. (2) Study showed different extracts of E alba have different hepatoprotective effects on injured liver induced by acetaminophen in mice. The hepatoprotective activity of the ethyl acetate extract of E alba showed to be the best. (3) Study of E alba in rats for its hepatoprotective effects on subcellular levels showed the activity is achieved by regulating the levels of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes.
Diuretic / Hypotensive / Hypocholesterolemic: Study suggests EA is diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic and helps in alleviating oxidative stress-induced complications of hypertension.
Osteoporosis: Stimulatory Constituents of Eclipta prostrata on Mouse Osteoblast Differentiation : Study isolated one flavonoid, diosmetin, and two isoflavonoids. All three significantly increased osteoblast differentiation and suggests a possible therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Lipid lowering: Study showed a dose-dependent activity in albino rats and supports its traditional use in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Screening of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves of Eclipta prostrata (L): Study showed EE showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity, and that EP could be used against Salmonella typhi.
Larvicidal: Larvicidal effect of Hemidesmus indicus, Gymnema sylvestre, and Eclipta prostrata against Culex qinquifaciatus mosquito larvae: Study showed leaves of E prostata can be an environmental friendly and sustainalbe source of insecticide for mosquite control.
Wedelolactone / Antibacterial: Wedelolactone is a naturally occurring coumestan isolated from the aerial parts of E alba. The compound showed good activity against s epidermis and Salmonella typhimurium. Results suggest wedelolactone as a promising antimicrobial agent.
Antioxidant: Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of E alba showed significant free radical scavenging for DPPH and for hydroxyl radical and considerable inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
Analgesic: Study showed both the ethanol extract and the total alkaloids produced good analgesic activity in all the different models of analgesia.
Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant: Study showed the effects of E prostata on serum lipid and oxidative metabolism in rats. The health promotiing effects demonstrated in rats may have implications for atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia in humans.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of methanolic extract showed significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin and egg white induced hind paw edema in rats, with effected comparable with standard drug indomethacin. Results support the traditional use of E prostata in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Learning and Memory: Traditionally used for its memory enhancing property, study of extract from shade-dried leaves revealed significant improvement of retrieval memory. Luteolins in the extract may be responsible for minimizing cognitive deficits dues to cholinergic dysfunctioning. The free radical scavenging activity might insulate neuronal tissues from degeneration. E Alba presents a potential as memory modulator.
Anthelmintic: Study showed anthelmintic potential of a methanolic extract of whole plant of Eclipta alba against Pheretima posthuma as a species of earthworm.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Capsules, tinctures and supplements in the cybermarket.  

Last Update March 2011

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Artemisia viridis Blanco2.284.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Lipid lowering activity of Eclipta prostrata in experimental hyperlipidemia / C Santhosh Kumari et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 105, Issue 3, 24 May 2006, Pages 332-335 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.031
(2)
Antihyperglycemic Activity of Eclipta alba Leaf on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats
/ J Ananthi et al / YALE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 76 (2003), pp. 97-102.
(3)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK. AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE IN MICE / Nahid Tabassum and Shyam Agrawal / JK - Practitioner 2004; 11(4):278-280
(4)
Screening of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves of Eclipta prostrata (L)
(5)

Larvicidal effect of Hemidesmus indicus, Gymnema sylvestre, and Eclipta prostrata against Culex qinquifaciatus mosquito larvae
(6)
Diuretic, Hypotensive, and Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Eclipta alba in Mild Hypertensive Subjects. A Pilot Study / Vasavi Rangineni et al / Journal of Medicinal Food • March 2007, 10(1): 143-148 / doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.0000.
(7)
Eclipta alba / Wikipedia

(8)
Stimulatory Constituents of Eclipta prostrata on Mouse Osteoblast Differentiation

(9)
Wedelolactone as an Antibacterial Agent extracted from Eclipta alba / Sunita Dalal et al / The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
(10)
Preliminary studies on the antioxidant activity of Tribulus terrestris and Eclipta alba / Aruradha Majumdar et al / Pharmacognosy Magazine • Volume :4 • Issue :13 • Supplement • January 2008 - March 2008 • Page No: 102-107
(11)
Analgesic studies on total alkaloids and alcohol extracts of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk. / Mahesh Sawant et al / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1165 / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 18 Issue 2, Pages 111 - 113
(12)
The butanol fraction of Eclipta prostrata (Linn) effectively reduces serum lipid levels and improves antioxidant activities in CD rats / Dae-Ik Kim et al / Nutrition Research 28 (2008) 550–554
(13)
Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata L. (Astearaceae) / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(3). pp. 097-100, March, 2009
(14)
INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF ECLIPTA ALBA ON ANIMAL MODELS OF LEARNING AND MEMORY / Otilia Banji et al / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2007; 51 (3) : 274–278
(15)
Hepatoprotective Effect of the Extract of Eclipta alba on Liver Damage / Tsing Hua et al / Journal of Mathematical Medicine, June 30, 2004

(16)
ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF ECLIPTA ALBA (L.) HASSK AGAINST PHERETIMA POSTHUMA / Sujata Ghule, Sanjay Chaudhair et al / t J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 3, Issue1, 143144


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