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Family Loganiaceae
Dolo
Fagraea cochinchinensis (Lour.) A. Chev.

iRONWOOD
Long dan cao

Scientific names Common names
Fagraea cochinchinensis (Lour.) A. Chev. Dolo (Tagb.)
Aidia cochinchinensis Lour. Dulo (Tagb.)
Aidia densiflora Wall. Susulin (Tag.)
Cryptophyllum fragrans A. DC. Teka (Kuy.)
Randia cochinchinensis Lour. Uling (Tagb.)
Fagraea fragrans Roxb. Uring (Kuy.)
  Ironwood (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
BURMA: Nan.
CAMBODIA: Tatraou.
CHINESE: Long dan cao.
FIJI: Buabua.
INDIA: Tembuso tammuso.
INDONESIA: Ki badak, Kayu tammusu, Ambinaton.
LAOS: Man pa.
MYANMAR: Anan, Ahnyim.
MALAYSIA: Tembusu hutan, Tembusu padang, Tembusu tembaga.
THAILAND: Kankrao, Man pla, Tham sao.
VIETNAM: Tatrao, Trai, Trai nam bo.

Botany
Dolo is a small tree reaching a height of 15 meters. Leaves are opposite, leathery, elliptic, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, with the stalks often 2 centimeters or more in length with the base of the blade running down the sides of the stalks. Stipules form a cup around the stem on which the leaves grow. Flowers are fragrant and borne in considerable numbers on compound inflorescences 5 to 8 centimeters long, in the axils of leaves and towards the ends of the branches. Calyx is deeply divided with rounded lobes. Corolla is yellowish-white with 5 conspicuous lobes, about 1.5 centimeters in length. Fruit is a berry, reddish when ripe, somewhat rounded, and about 6 millimeters in diameter. Seeds are very small, brown, less than 1 millimeter in diameter, angular in shape, with a very thin seed aril.

Distribution
- On dry, forested slopes on the borders of grasslands, and in thickets at low altitudes in Mindoro, Culion, Busuanga, Palawan, and Balabac.
- Ornamental planting in town parks and along roads.
- Also occurs in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.

Constituents
- Bark contains an alkaloid which is reported to be isomeric to strychnine and possessing similar properties.
- Study of bark and leaves isolated a secoiridoid aglycone, named fagrldehyde, together with known secoiridoids gentiopicroside, sweroside, and swertiamarin.

Properties
- Bark considered febrifuge.
- In Malaya, tree has been reported to cause dermatitis.

Parts used
Bark, leaves and twigs.

Uses

Folkloric
- Bark used as a febrifuge, especially in ague.
- Decoction of leaf and twigs used for dysentery.
- In Malacca, decoction of bark has been found effectual in the treatment of malarial fevers.
Others
- Wood: Trunk of the tree is very hard; used for making tool handles and chopping boards, for house and bridge constructions, furniture, and doors.

- Charocoal: Yields good quallity charcoal and fuelwood.

Studies
Secoiridoids / Fagraldehyde / Weak Anti-Plasmodial:
Study yielded a secoiridoid, fagraldehyde, and known secoiridoids gentiopicroside, sweroside, and swertiamarin. Fagraldehyle showed weak activity in vitro against Plasmodium falcifarum. (2)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Upate December 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Tembusu, Species: Fagraea fragrans / Ooi Chooi Seng / Bukit Jugra Hike and Reunion Lunch by the Silk Road Tour Group / 23 November 2008 / click on photo to go to source page / fairfun.net

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Randia cochinchinensis / Transactions, American Philosophical Society (vol. 24, Part 2, 1935-June) /
(2)
Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products / Ronan Batista, Ademir de Jesus Silva Júnior and Alaíde Braga de Oliveira / Molecules 2009, 14, 3037-3072; doi:10.3390/molecules14083037
(3)
Fagraea fragrans Roxb. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(4)
Fragraea fragrans Roxb. / Seed Leaflet, No 106, December 2004


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