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Family Malvaceae
Buboi
Kapok
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn
WHITE SILK COTTON TREE

Ji bei

Scientific names Common names 
Bombax cumanense Kunth  Balios (Tag.) 
Bombax guineense Schum. & Thonn.  Basanglai (Ilk.)
Bombax guineensis Schum.  Boboi (Bik., Tag.) 
Bombax inerme Schumach. Boi-boi (Ak., Bis.) 
Bombax mompoxense Kunth Buboi (Tag.) 
Bombax orientale Spreng  Bulak (Tag., Pamp.)
Bombax pentandrum Linn.  Bulak-dondol (C. Bis.) 
Ceiba anfractuosa (DC.) M.Gómez.   Bulak-kastila (Pamp.)
Ceiba caribaea (DC.) A.Chev.   Bulak-kahoi (Tag.) 
Ceiba casearia Medik. Bulak-sina (Tag.) 
Ceiba guineensis (Thonn.) A.Chev. Daldol (Bis.)
Ceiba occidentalis (Spreng.) Burkill   Doldol (Bis.)
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.   Dogdol (C. Bis.)
Ceiba thonnerii A.Chev.   Dondol (Ilk., C. Bis.)
Ceiba thonningii A.Chev.   Gataoua (If.)
Eriodendrom anfractuosum DC.   Gapas (C. Bis.)
Eriodendrom caribaeum G.Don   Kayo (Bik., Bis.)
Eriodendrom caribaeum G.Don ex. Loud. Kasanglai (Pamp.)
Eriodendrom guineense G.Don ex Loud. Kapak (Sbl.)
Eriodendrom occidentale (Spreng.) G.Don   Kapas (Sbl.)
Eriodendrom orientale Kostel.   Kapas-sanglai (Ilk.)
Eriodendrom pentandrum (L.) Kurz   Kapok (Bis., Sul.)
Gossampinus alba Buch.-Ham.   Ka[as (Pang.)
Gossampinus rumphii Schott & Endl.  Kapuk (Sul.)
Xylon pentandrum Kuntze   Kulak (Ilk.)
  Sanglai (Ting., Bon.)
  Kapok (Tag.)
  Ceiba (Engl.)
  Cottonwood (Engl.)
  Java kapok (Engll.)
  Kapok tree (Engl.)
  True kapok tree (Engl.)
  While silk cotton tree (Engl.)
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Rum (Chad), Shajaret al kutun.
BAMBARA : Bàna, Bànan.
BENGALI: Schwetsimul, Setsimul.
BURMESE: Thinbawle.
CAMEROON:Bantaidje, Doukdouk, Koumi, Ta'amoul, Kosso'onbana, Boudjou, Bikora, Toum, Mania.
CHINESE: Zhua wa mu mia, Ji bei mian, Ji bei mu mian, Ji bie.
DANISH: Kapoktræ, Silkebomuldstræ.
DUTCH: Kapokboom.
FINNISH: Capoc, Kapokkipuu, Seiba.
FRENCH : Arbre coton, Arbre de Dieu, Arbre à kapok, Arbre kapok, Bois coton, Capoquier, Cotonnier de l'Inde, Faux cotonnier, Fromager, Kapokier.
GERMAN: Baumwollbaum, Fuma, Kapokbaum, Wollbaum.
HAUSA: Riimaayee, Riimii.
HINDI: Katan, Safed savara, Safed semul, Safed simal, Safed simul.
ITALIAN: Albero del kapok, Pianta del kapok.
JAPANESE: Kapokku, Kiwata kapokku.
KHMER: Koo, Kor.
LAOTIAN: Kokuiyu, Nguiz baanz.
MALAY: Daun randu, Kabuk abu, Kakabu, Kakantrie, Kankantri (Surinam), Kapok (Indonesia), Kapuk randu (Indonesia), Mengkapas, Pohon kapok (Indonesia), Pohon randu.
MARATHI : Safetasavara.
PORTUGUESE : Arvore-da-lã, Arvore-da-seda, Barriguda, Barriguda de espinho, Mai-das-arvores, Mafumeira, Paina, Paina-lisa, Paineira, Poilão, Polão, Samaúma-cabeluda, Samaúna da várzea, Samaúma-lisa, Sumauma da mata, Sumauma de terra firme, Sumaúma, Sumaúma-branca, Sumaúma-da-várzea, Sumaúma-de-macaco, Sumaúma-rosada, Sumaúma-verdadeira, Sumaumeira.
SANSKRIT: Seta salmali, Shvetasalmali, Shweta shalmali.
SINHALESE: Elavam, Imbul, Kottapulung, Pulung, Pulunimbal.
SPANISH: Arbol capoc, Arbol de seda, Arbol de la seda, Bonga, Capoquero, Ceiba blanca, Ceiba de lana, Ceiba juca, Ceiba yuca, Ceibo, Ceibo jabillo, Hoja de yuca, Huimba, Mosmote, Peem, Pochota, Pochote, Toborochi, Yaxché, Yuca.
SWAHILI: Mbuyu, Msufi.
SWEDISH: Kapok.
TAMIL: Ilavu, Ilavum, Illavam panju, Pancu, Panji, Panjirnaram, Panjumaram, Ulagamaram.
TELUGU: Tella buruga.
THAI: Ngao, Ngio noi, Ngio sai, Ngio soi, Nun.
URDU: Sambal.
VIETNAMESE: Bông gòn.
YORUBA: Araba (Nigeria), Egun, Ogungun.

Botany
Buboi is an erect, deciduous tree, growing to a height of 15 meters or less. Trunk is cylindric, usually bearing scattered, large spines. Branches are in distant whorls, spread horizontally. Leaves are compound, with 5 to 8 leaflets, lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are numerous large, fragrant, and creamy white, about 3 centimeters long. Fruits are capsules, oblong, pendulous, leathery, oblong, about 15 centimeters long, 5 centimeters thick, containing numerous black seeds, which are compressed-globose, smooth, and embedded in fine, silky hairs.

Distribution
- Planted in settled areas throughout the Philippines.
- Native to tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Seeds contain oil, 24.2%; ash, 5.22%; crude fiber, 23.9 %; albuminoids, 18.9%; carbohydrates and others, 15.9%.
- The oil is a mixture of fatty acid, 70% liquid, 30% solid palmitic acid.
- Kapok oil has a composition similar to American cotton-seed oil.
- Study yielded bioactive compounds: phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phytate, trypsin inhibitors, and hemagglutinin inhibitors.
- Proximate analysis of leaf contained 4.891% moisture, 12.97% protein, 52.06% carbohydrate, 4.35% fat, 7.54% ash, 18.15% crude fiber, 0.73 µg/g vitamin A, 4.91 mg/g vitamin C, 0.18 mg/g vitamin E. Bioactive components yielded phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phytate. (
11)
- Proximate analysis of leaves yielded a high percentage of moisture (47.37%), protein (16.81%), carbohydrate (25.23%), low percentage of fiber (4.47%), fats (2.23%) and ash (2.14%). Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenol, and saponins. Vitamin composition yielded vitamin A 2.323 µg/g, vitamin C 0.6863 mg/100g, vitamin E 1.883 mg/100g.
(See study below) (26)
- Phytochemical screening of aerial parts yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, resins, fats, and oils. (32)
- Phytochemical analysis of leaves, stems, and roots yielded tannin, alkaloid, saponin, sterols, flavonoid, and phenols. Comparative qualitative analysis showed the leaves to yielded highest % components: tannin 2.61 ± 0.02, alkaloids 632 ± 0.71, saponin 3.75 ± 0.7, cyanogenic glycosides 18.71 ± 2.0, sterols 0.13 ± 0.012, flavonoid 1.26 ± 0.015, and phenol 0.17 ± 0.01. (42)
- Proximate analysis of leaves, stems, and roots yielded % of carbohydrates 40.59, 31.85, 35.06, ash content 7.26, 1.43, 3.73, moisture content 14.34, 12.39, 18.71, crude fiber 18.64, 19.75, 23.64, ether extract 2.41, 0.98, 0.69, and crude protein 12.32, 9.74, and 6.84, respectively. Of the mineral components, the highest was potassium at 0.36, 0.13, and o0.25 % for leaves, stems, and roots, respectively. (42)
- GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of leaves yielded nine phytochemicals: 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (1), Hexadecanoic acid (2), Phytol (3),  5,9,13-Pentadecatrien-2-one (4), Squalene (5), Vitamin E (6), Olean-18-ene (7), 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyL-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-Cyclohexe (8), and Cyclotrisiloxane (9).  (see study below) (44)
- Study of heartwood of C. pentandra isolated a new naphthoquinone, 2,7-dihydroxy-8-formyl-5-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (1) together with known naphthoquinone, 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (2). (50)

Properties
- Roots are diuretic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, tonic.
- Bark is acrid, bitter, thermogenic, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, purgative and tonic.
- Unripe fruit considered demulcent and astringent.
- Young leaf extremely high in fiber content.

Parts utilized
Bark, roots, leaves, fruit.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- In Malaya, Java and Celebes, young leaves eaten as vegetable.
- Sprouts and young pods are also edible.
- In Nigeria, leaves are cooked into a slurry sauce, like okra.
- In West Africa, young leaves cooked and eaten as soup herb.
- Young leaves are very good sources of calcium and iron.
Sprouts and young pods are also edible.
- In Cameroon, seeds roasted with salt consumed as groundnuts (appetizers). (41)
Folkloric
- Bark is reported to be vomitive and aphrodisiac.
- Decoction of bark used for catarrh.
- Tender fruit used as emollient.
- Decoction of bark regarded as a specific in febrile catarrh.
- Gum is astringent; used for bowel complaints. In children, gum with milk, given as cooling laxative. Also used for urine incontinence in children.
- Gum used as styptic, given in diarrhea, dysentery, and menorrhagia.
- In Liberia, Infusion of bark used as mouthwash.
- Infusion of leaves, onions, and a little tumeric, used for coughs.
- Young roots, shade-dried and powdered, is a chief ingredient in aphrodisiac medicines.
- Tap-root of young plant used for gonorrhea and dysentery.
- Bark in diuretic; in sufficient quantities, produces vomiting.
- In Cambodia, bark used for fevers and diarrhea. Also, as a cure for inebriation, used to bring about perspiration and vomiting.
- Malays used the bark for asthma and colds in children.
- In India, roots used for gonorrhea, dysuria, fevers. Decoction of bark used for chronic dysentery, diarrhea, ascites, and anasarca. Tender leaves also used for gonorrhea.
- In Java, bark mixed with areca nuts, nutmegs, and sugar candy, used as diuretic and for treatment of bladder stones. Infusion of leaves used for cough, hoarseness, intestinal catarrh, and urethritis. Leaves also used for cleaning hair.
- In the
Cameroons, bark, which has tannin, is pounded and macerated in cold water and applied to swollen fingers.
- In
French Guiana, decoction of flowers used for constipation.
- In
Mexico, used for boils, insect bites, mange; used as anti-inflammatory; bark and leaf decoctions used as poultices. Bark decoction taken internally as emetic, diuretic and antispasmodic.
- Bark used for liver and spleen conditions, abdominal complaints, flatulence, constipation.
- Leaves used as emollient. Decoction of flowers is laxative.
- In Nigerian folk medicine, used for treatment of diabetes and infections. Leaves used as alterative and laxative, and as infusion for colic in man and in livestock. Seed oil used in rheumatism. Also, leaves used as curative dressings on sores and to maturate tumors.
- Compressed fresh leaves used for dizziness; decoction of boiled roots used to treat edema; gum eaten to relieve stomach upset; tender shoot decoction used as contraceptive; leaf infusion taken orally for cough and sore throat.  (34)
- In India and Malaya, used for bowel complaints.
- In the Ivory Coast, mucilage obtained by boiling used to remove foreign bodies from the eye. Also, bark sap given to sterile women to promote conception.
- In West Africa, used for diarrhea and gonorrhea.
- In Samoa, bark used for asthma.
- In the northern part of Cameroon, bark and roots used as aphrodisiac. Fali men chew barks and roots to keep their manhood. Decoction of young leaves mixed with palm kernel oil taken by women as antibiotic. Young flowers used to treat gonorrhea and syphilis. Roots also used for dysentery. Fali use kapok ashes to treat cough.(41)

Others
- Fibers: Pod fibers are used in the stuffing of pillows, cushions, mattresses and the manufacture and life-preservers.
- Oil: Kapok oil, extracted from the seeds, used in the manufacture of soap; also, a substitute for cotton-seed oil. Also used for cooking and as lubricant.
- Wood: Tree is used for fencing and telephone poles. (•) In the northern Cameroon, wood used for the manufacture of spatulas, mortars, musical drums, furniture, doors, and canoes. (41)
- Dye: Ashes of the fruit used by dyers in Malaysia.
- Study showed the C. pentandra fiber may be useful in recovering oil spilled in seawater.
- Fodder: Sheep, goats, cattle relish the foliage. Pressed cake as cattle feed yields about 26% protein.  (34) Fresh cake used as stock feed. (•
)
- Folklore / Mythology / Rituals: The tree is considered sacred in Mayan mythology, with the belief that the souls of the dead climb up the branches which reach into heaven. (40) In the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, a huge kapok tree deep in the forest is considered the castle of the demon of death, Bazil, imprisoned within. (40) In the Far-North regions of Cameroon, the Mundang anoint newborns with a mixture to powdered roots and dried and crushed bark with palm kernel oil to drive out evil spirits. (41) In Saint Lucia, prickles are placed over doors and windows to protect against black magic. (44) In India, the burning of the tree in Holi or Holiika-dahan, a religious festival, causes immense damage and threatens the survival of the plant in Udaipur district. (52)


STUDIES
Hypoglycemic / Bark:
A study of aqueous bark extract of Ceiba pentandra in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats caused a statistically significant reduction of plasma glucose supporting the hypoglycemic effects of C pentandra. (1)
A New Isoflavone Glycoside from Ceiba pentandra (L.) / Bark: A bark extract study of C. pentandra isolated a new isoflavone with other known isoflavones, vavain and vavain glucoside. (3)
Two New Isoflavones / COX-Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis:
Study of bark yielded two new Isoflavones from Ceiba pentandra: the new isoflavone glucoside vavain 3′-O-ß-D-glucoside (1) and its aglycon, vavain (2), together with the known flavan-3-ol, (+)-catechin. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis. (5)
Toxicological Studies:
Toxicological studies reveal that C pentandra has a very low toxicity profile in all tested animals and is relatively safe for herbal oral medication. (7) Study evaluated a methanolic extract for acute and subacute toxicity in adult Wistar rats. Results showed no toxicity effects, reflecting innocuous nature of the extracts on hepatic, renal and hematopoetic system of rats. (31)
Anti-Fungal:
Alcohol and water extracts of C citratus, C pentandra and L bengwelensis were investigated for antifungal activities. Phytochemical studies yielded saponins, tannins, fats and oils, alkaloids and phenol. All the extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms: E flocosum, M canis, T rubrum and Candida albicans. The activity was attributed to the presence of saponins and phenols. (8)
Adsorbent / Removal of Lead and Zinc:
Study investigated the ability of low-cost activated carbon from C pentandra hulls, an agricultural waste material, for the removal of zinc and lead from aqueous solutions. (10)
Nutritional / Medicinal Potential:
Study showed C. pentandra contain nutrients and mineral elements useful in nutrition, while bioactive compounds explained the medicinal action of plant leaves and provide scientific basis for its folkloric use.
Hepatoprotective: Study showed the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of C. pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (12)
Antihyperglycemic / Antilipidperoxidative / Bark:
Study of an ethanolic bark extract of CP showed potent antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative potential in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (13)
Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds:
Study of petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seeds showed anti-inflammatory effects when assessed by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. (14)
Anti-Diarrheal / Stem Bark:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra for antidiarrheal activity. Extract showed significant protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea but no significant delay in intestinal transit time. (16)
Biodiesel from Kapok Seed Oil:
Study showed Kapok seed oil can be used as raw material for the production of biodiesel. CaO catalyst can be regenerated up to 3 times with the smallest yield of 64.3%. (17)
Antioxidant / Seed Oil:
Ceiba pentandra seed oil exhibited remarkable phytochemical and antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP, reducing power assay, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening yielded phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. (18)
Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic / Roots:
Study of a methylene chloride/methanol root extract of Ceiba pentandra in normal and diabetic rats showed hypoglycemic effects. The extract was capable of ameliorating at lower doses, hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (19) (•)
Anti-Venom / Di-n-octyl Phthalate / Leaves: Study evaluated the efficacy of Di-n-octyl phthalate isolated from the leaves of Ceiba pentandra for its anti Echis ocellatus venom properties. The isolate was biologically active in dose-dependently inhibiting PLA2 activity. Results suggest the isolated compound has a potential for a highly effective therapeutic agent for reducing snake envenomation. (20)
Antiulcer / Di-n-octyl Phthalate / Leaves:
Study evaluated the effect of Ceiba pentandra on ethanol-induced and pylorus-induced ulcers in rats. Results showed a dose-dependent antiulcerogenic effect with significant reduction of the index of gastric lesion in both ulcer induced models.
(21)
Antibacterial / Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts:
Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of an ethanol extract of leaf, stem bark, and their combination in vitro against selected human pathogens: K pneumonia, P aeruginosa, S aureus, and E coli. The extracts and their combination showed significant antibacterial activity, without synergistic or additive effects with the combined extract. (22)
Hypoglycemic / Root Bark:
Study showed a root bark extract of Ceiba pentandra has hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
(23)
Oily Water Filtration / Kapok Fibers:
A deep-bed kapok filtration column showed to be successful in achieving oily water separation. The oil and water front movements were influenced by the affinity of liquid to kapok fibers. Results show excellent physiochemical property of Malaysian kapok for oil removal from water.
(24)
Anti-Urolithiasis: Study evaluated aqueous and alcohol extracts of bark of C. pentandra on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in male albino Wistar rats. The extracts significantly reduced elevated urinary oxalate showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. Results suggest a potential curative agent for urolithiasis. (25)
Nutritional Potential / Leaves: Proximate analysis of leaves yielded a high percentage of moisture (47.37%), protein (16.81%), carbohydrate (25.23%), low percentage of fiber (4.47%), fats (2.23%) and ash (2.14%). Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenol, and saponin, and the presence of vitamins A, C, and E. Results found C. pentandra leaves as rich in certain nutrients and phytochemicals supporting its ethno-medical usages. (26)
Hemolytic / Antioxidant / Fruits: Study of various extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate) of spike and young fruit extracts of Ceiba pentandra showed significant antioxidant and antihemolytic activities. The antihemolytic activity was attributed to the ability of phenolic compounds including flavanoids in neutralizing free radicals generated by H2O2 and thereby protecting the erythrocytes membrane from destruction and lysis. (27)
Antiulcerogenic / Anti-Oxidative / Leaves: Study evaluated the protective effects of a methanol extract of C. pentandra leaves on indomethancin and ethanol induced gastric ulcer and on oxidative stress indices on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent anti-ulcerogenic and anti-oxidative properties and a potential use as herbal remedy for the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcer and management of diabetes. (2
9)
Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic / Combination with Amaranthus viridis: Ethanolic extracts of Amaranthus viridis and Ceiba pentandra and their combination showed a significant decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, and a significant increase in body weight, HDL, liver glycogen and tissue glycogen levels. (
30)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw edema in mice) and analgesic activity (Eddy's hot plate method in albino mice) of a methanol extract of stem bark of C. pentandra. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect compared to standard drugs, indomethacin and pentazocine, respectively. (33)
Fiber as Component of Metal Sensor for Lead: The kapok fiber contains lignocellulosic materials and has been used as metal-binding substance in a carbon paste electrode and used in the voltammetric analysis of heavy metals. Analysis showed it can detect lead ions and has a potential application in testing for the purity of domestic and industrial waters. (35)
Anti-Obesity / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of C. pentandra in Cafeteria diet treated Wistar albino rats. Results showed C. pentandra has an anti-obesity activity which may be partly mediated via inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and thermogenesis, with a therapeutic potential in the management of obesity. (36)
Biorefinery Study on Seed and Secondary Waste: The combination of methanol transesterification and pyrolysis processes transforms kapok seed and its secondary waste into biodiesel, bio-oil, and char. (37)
• Antibacterial / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of Ceiba pentandra seeds for antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, E. aerogenes, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, S. typhi, S. epidermis, and P. vulgaris. The acetone extracts showed the widest range of antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogens. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, and phenolic compounds, with absence of anthroquinones and steroids. (42)
• Antitumor / Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cells / Bark: Study evaluated the cytotoxic potential of bark extracts in vivo on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and in vivo on EAC (liquid tumor) and Dalton's lymphomas ascites (DLA) model. Three potent extracts (petroleum ether, acetone, and ethanol) were evaluated for acute toxicity in mice and was found to be safe up to 300 mg/kg. In the EAC, there was a significant (p<0.05) improvement in mean survival time and maximum decline in tumor induced increase in body weight. In DLA, all extracts showed 50% reduction in tumor weight and significant reduction (p<0.05) in tumor volume. Results suggest both cytotoxic and antitumor activity. (43)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro free radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of leaves. The EE was found high dose-dependent activity against E. coli and S. aureus. In antioxidant evaluated by DPPH, NO, and hydroxyl assay, the extract showed high free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 27.4, 24.45, and 51.65 µg/ml, respectively. (see constituents above) (44)
• Control of Urinary Tract Infection / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated a hexane extract of of leaves for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by pathogens B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumonia, and Pseudomonas sp. Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded phenolic compounds, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, fats and oils and tannins. A 50% radical scavenging was observed at 2.0 µg/ml concentration of the hexane extract, with a highly significant IC 50 of 3.65 µg/ml. (45)
• Anti-Virulence / Quorum-Sensing System Inhibition / Bark: Inhibition of quorum sensing system (QSS-I) is a novel strategy in the treatment of bacterial infections. Study showed the hexane and dichlormethane extracts of Ceiba pentandra and C. aeculifolia exhibited QSS-I activity. Study identified four fractions rich in terpene and sterol compounds with ability to attenuate virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (46)
• Glucose Lowering / Acute Oral Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated C. pentandra ethanol extract of leaves for glucose lowering activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed C. pentandra has glucose lowering effect and can ameliorate the biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus. On acute oral toxicity study, the safe dose (LD50) of the extract was greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. (47)

Hypoglycemic / Antihyperglycemic / Bark:
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of C. pentandra bark for hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. A single dose study showed significant reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats with no significant hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. In long-term study (21 days), C. pentandra significantly decreased blood glucose level, total cholesterol and triglycerides, prevented degeneration of the liver and pancreas, and increased the serum level of insulin and liver glycogen in diabetic rats. Acute toxicity study showed no toxicity up to dose of 2000 mg/kbw. (48)
• Diuretic / Anti-Inflammatory / Resin: Kapok bark yields resin. The resin extractive exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan-induced edema model with % inhibition of 58.14% at 500 mg/kg and 62.79% at 1000 mg/kg. The 1000 mg/kg dose was almost as effective as aspirin. Study also showed potential diuretic effect. (49)
• Antimicrobial / Seed Oil:
Ceiba pentandra seed oil was evaluated for antimicrobial effects and spectro-photometric parameters. The crude oil was found to show good to moderate activity against bacteria, especially Gram-positive (B. cereus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus), Gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), and fungal strains, specifically A. flavus, A. niger, C. albicans and S. cerevisiae. The physiohcemical characteristics were similar to cotton seed oil. Spectrophotometric analysis of the oil suggests the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds. (51)
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Seed:
Study of petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seeds of Ceiba pentandra by tail immersion model and brewer's yeast-induced model, respectively. Results showed significant analgesic activity and antipyretic effect, respectively. (53)
• Occupational Hazard Concern / Chronic Bronchitis: A 1977 Sri-Lankan study reports on an investigation into the health of 41 kapok workers in five ginneries. Mill fever occurred in 28 (77.8%) of the 36 workers who were able to provide a history. Chronic bronchitis was detected in seven workers with an average of 20.9 years of service in the industry. Study suggests chronic bronchitis is an occupational hazard in chronic kapok dust exposure. (55)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated for ornamental use.
 


Updated November 2018 / July 2015

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Ceiba pentandra Blanco2.238-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Ceiba pentandra in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Olusola Ladeji, Ikechukwu Omekarah and Mariam Solomon / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00321-5 / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 84, Issues 2-3, February 2003, Pages 139-142
(2)
Indian Medicinal Plants
(3)
A New Isoflavone Glycoside from Ceiba pentandra (L.) / Hidenori Ueda, Norito Kaneda, Kazuko Kawanishi, Sergio Mello Alves and Masataka Moriyasu
(4)
Excellent oil absorbent kapok [ Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.] fiber: fiber structure, chemical characteristics, and application
(5)
Two New Isoflavones from Ceiba pentandra and Their Effect on Cyclooxygenase-Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis / Ylva Noreen, Hesham El-Seedi, Premila Perera, and Lars Bohlin* / J. Nat. Prod. 1998, 61, 8-12
(6)
Hypoglycaemic effect of methylene chloride/methanol root extract of Ceiba pentandra in normal and diabetic rats / Indian Journal of Pharmacology / 2006 | Volume : 38 | Issue : 3 | Page : 194-197

(7)
Toxicological studies of Ceiba pentandra Linn / S Sarkiyayi et al / African Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol.3 (7), pp.279-281, July, 2009
(8)
Studies on the effects Cymbopogon citratus, Ceiba pentandra and Loranthus bengwelensis extracts on
species of dermatophytes
/ Nwachukwu I N et al / The Journal of American Science, 4(4), 2008, ISSN 1545-1003 /
(9)
ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF CEIBA PENTANDRA EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETIC (NIDDM) RATS / Paul Desire D Dzeufiet et al / African Journal of Traditional, Complimentary and Alternative Medicines,, Vol.4, No. 1, 2007, pg. 47-54 /
(10)
Activated carbon from Ceiba pentandra hulls, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of lead and zinc from aqueous solutions / M Madhava Rao et al / doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.01.017 / Waste Management Volume 28, Issue 5, 2008, Pages 849-858
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Investigations on the nutritional and medicinal potentials of Ceiba pentandra leaf: A common vegetable in Nigeria / Emmanuel Titus Friday, Omale James et al / International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Vol. 3(6), pp. 95-101, June 2011
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Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats /
Nirmal K. Bairwa, Neeraj K. Sethiya, and S. H. Mishra / Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 Jan-Feb; 2(1): 26–30.
doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.60584
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ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTILIPID PEROXDATIVE POTENTIAL OF CEIBA PENTANDRA IN STREPTOZOTOCIN- INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Manoharan S, Gitanjali M et al / Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 9(1) 1731-1736 (2009)
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ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CEIBA PENTANDRA L. SEED EXTRACTS / Alagawadi K R and Shah A S / Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(2) 2781-2784 (2011)

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Sorting Ceiba names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIDIARRHOEAL STUDIES OF THE STEM BARK OF CEIBA PENTANDRA (BOMBACACEAE) / Sule, M. I., Njinga, N. S, . Musa, A. M., Magaji, M. G., Abdullahi, A. / Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, March 2009; 8(1): pp 143-149
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Biodiesel Production from Kapok Seed Oil (Ceiba Pentandra) Through the Transesterification Process by Using Cao as Catalyst / Endah Mutiara Marhaeni Putri α, M. Rachimoellah σ, Nidya Santoso ρ & Ferdy Pradana / Global Journal of Researches in Engineering Chemical Engineering Volume 12 Issue 2 Version 1.0 Year 2012
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Evaluation of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) Seed Oil / Ch. Ravi Kiran*, Y. Madhavi and T. Raghava Rao / J Bioanal Biomed 2012, 4:4 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/1948-593X.1000065
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HYPOGLYCAEMIC AND ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF ROOT EXTRACTS OF CEIBA PENTANDRA IN NORMAL AND DIABETIC RATS / Paul Désiré Dzeufiet Djomeni *; Léonard Tédong; Emmanuel Acha Asongalem; Théophile Dimo; Selestin Dongmo Sokeng; Pierre Kamtchouing / Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2006) 3 (1): pp 129 - 136
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Efficacy of Di-n-octyl Phthalate Anti Venom Isolated from Ceiba pentandra Leaves Extract in Neutralization of Echis ocellatus Venom / S. Ibrahim, J.A. Nok, M.S. Abubakar and S. Sarkiyayi / Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2012; 4(15): 2382-2387
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Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) GAERTN. on rats / Gandhare, Bhushan; Kavimani, S.; Rajkapoor, B. / Journal of Pharmacy Research; Nov 2011, Vol. 4 Issue 11, p4132
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Comparative evaluation of Ceiba pentandra ethanolic leaf extract, stem bark extract and the combination thereof for in vitro bacterial growth inhibition / Asare, Peter and Oseni, Lateef Adebayo / Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921, Vol.2, No.5, 2012
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Investigation of Hypoglycemic Effect of Ceiba Pentandra Root Bark Extract in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats / Saif-ur-Rehman, Saghir A. Jafri, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Abdul Shakoor, Hafiz M.N. Iqbal, Bilal Munir Ahmad, Imran Tipu / IJAVMS. 2010; 4(3): 88-95
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Evaluation of Malaysian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. for oily water filtration using factorial design / Abdullah, MA (2011)
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Assessment of Ceiba pentandra on Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis in Rats
/ Ankur Choubey, Aadarsh Choubey, Promil Jain, Deepa Iyer, U K Patil / Der Pharma Chemica: Online Journal for Medical, Pharmaceutical, and Computational Chemistry.
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EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF Ceiba pentandra LEAVES / ENECHI O.C*, PETER CHIBUIKE D., UGWU OKECHUKWU P.C. UDEH SYLVESTER M.C. AND OMEH, YUSUF S. / Mintage journal of Pharmaceutical & Medical Sciencesǀ25-27
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ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHEMOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF BOMBAX CEIBA PENTANDRA SPIKE AND FRUIT EXTRACTS / DIVYA N, NAGAMANI JE*, SUMA PRABHU / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Suppl 5, 2012

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Ceiba Pentandra / Plants Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine / Armando Gonzalez Stuart, Ph.D.
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Anti-ulcerogenic Effects and Anti-oxidative Properties of Ceiba pentandra Leaves on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats / C. A. Anosike*, J. C.Ugwu, P. C. Ojeli and S. C. Abugu / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, ISSN: 2231-0894 ,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 4 (April)
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ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDAEMIC ACTIVITY OF CEIBA PENTANDRA, AMARANTHUS VIRIDIS AND THEIR COMBINATION ON DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED DIABETIC SWISS ALBINO RATS / BUGGA PARAMESHA, VEMULA PRANAV KUMAR, RAMUDU BANKAL, K.MANASA, T. TAMILANBAN* / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, Issue 4, 2014
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Acute and Subacute Toxicity Study of Methanolic Extract of ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaertn. on Rats / B. Gandhare*, S. Kavimani, and B. Rajkapoor / J. Sci. Res. 5 (2), 315-324 (2013)
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Phytochemical screening and HPTLC studies of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. variety pentandra cultivated in Egypt / Mohamed E. Abou Elela, Mohamed A. A. Orabi, Mohamed S. A. Abdelkader, Faten M. M. Darwish / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 4(1): 10-17
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EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CEIBA PENTANDRA / Amol Kharat*, Kuldeep Ramteke, Kiran Kharat / Biopharm Journal. 2015, 1(1), 22‐26
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Ceiba pentandra / World Agroforestry
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FIBER OF KAPOK (CEIBA PENTANDRA) AS COMPONENT OF A METAL SENSOR FOR LEAD IN WATER SAMPLES / ELMER-RICO E MOJICA, FLORINIA E MERCA & JOSE RENE L MICOR / Philippine Journal of Crop Science 2002, 27(2): 37-42
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EVALUATION OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CEIBA PENTANDRA FOR ANTI-OBESITY AND HYPOLIPIDAEMIC ACTIVITY IN CAFETERIA DIET (CD) TREATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS / Amol Patil, P. A. Thakurdesai, Shrikant Pawar* and Kedar Soni / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
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Novel, Integrated Biorefinery Approach of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) Seed and Its Secondary Waste
/ Alfin Kurniawan, Chintya Effendi, Lu Ki Ong, Yi-Hsu Ju, Chun Xiang Lin, and Suryadi Ismadji * / ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2013, 1 (5), pp 473–480 / DOI: 10.1021/sc300128c
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Ceiba pentandra / Synonyms / The Plant List
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Reforestation and Medicinal Use of Trees / Liliana Usvat
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Local uses of kapok (Ceiba pentandra Gaertn.) Tree from the Northern Part of Cameroon / Gilles Bernard Nkouam, Giscard Adjoh, Carine Bertille Tchankou Leudeu, Christiant Kouebou, Clergé Tchiegang / International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB), July-August 2017; 2(4) / http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.4.82
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Comparative phytochemical and proximate analyses on Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn. and Bombax buonopozense (P) Beauv. / Iroka Finian Chisom, Okereke Chukwu N, Okeke C. U. / International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2014; 2(2): pp 162-167
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Evaluation of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertner bark extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity on cancer cells and in vivo antitumor activity in solid and liquid tumor models / Ravishankar Kumar, Nitesh Kumar, Grandhi V. Ramalingayya, Mandanahalli Manjunath Setty,, and Karkala Sreedhara Rangnath Pai / Cytotechnology, Oct 2016; 68(5): pp 1909-1923 / doi: 10.1007/s10616-016-0002-2
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Antibacterial and Antioxidant activity of Ethanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves and its Phytochemicals Analysis using GC-MS / R. Bhavani, E. Bhuvaneswari, S. Rajeshkumar / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2016; 9(11)
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CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF HEXANE EXTRACT OF CEIBA PENTANDRA LEAVES EXTRACTS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND URINARY TRACT INFECTION PATHOGEN CONTROL / K. Padmalochana, M. K. Vadivazhagi and C. Kalayarasi / European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research: jpmr, 2018; 5(1): pp 193-199
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Phytochemical screening and anti-virulence properties of Ceiba pentandra and Ceiba aesculifolia(Malvaceae) bark extracts and fractions / Naybi Muñoz-Cazares, Silvia Aguilar-Rodríguez, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Marcos Soto-Hernández, Mariano Martínez-Vázquez, Mariana Palma-Tenango, Francisco Javier Prado-Galbarro, Israel Castillo-Juárez / Botanical Sciences, 218; 96(3)
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Acute oral toxicity study of ethanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves as a glucose lowering agent in diabetic rats / Hadiza Lami Muhammad, Adamu Yusuf Kabiru, Musa Bola Busari, Abdullah Mann et al / Journal of Acute Disease, May 2016; 5(3): pp 237-243 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joad.2016.03.012
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HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF CEIBA PENTANDRA L. GAERTN IN NORMAL AND STREPTOZOTOCININDUCED DIABETIC RATS / R. J. SATYAPRAKASH, M. S. RAJESH, M. BHANUMATHY, M. S. HARISH, T. N. SHIVANANDA, H. N. SHIVAPRASAD and G. SUSHMA / Ghana Medical Journal, Sept 2013; Vol 4, No 3
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Anti-inflammatory and diuretic activity of resin from kapok (Ceiba pentandra Linn. Family bombacaceae. / Catherine G Cayanan, Patrina D de Guzman, Rowell Anthony B de la Cruz, Margarita U Mendoza, Karla Paula I Ramos, and Analiza L Sanguyo / Thesis: March 2006 / Centro Escolar University, Malolos
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A new naphthoquinone from Ceiba pentandra / P Hari Kishore, M Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, D Gunasekar, Cristelle Caux, and Bernard Bodo / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2003; 5(3) / https://doi.org/10.1080/1028602031000105812
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Physico-chemical characteriza- tion and antimicrobial activity of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) seed oil / Ravi Kiran Chekuboyina, Koteswara Rao Pagolu, Bhaskar Rao Dadi, Sirisha Nagala, Raghava Rao Tamanam /Alternative Medicine Studies, 2012; Vol 2: pp 43-47, e9
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Myths, traditions and fate of multipurpose Bombax ceiba L.- An appraisal / Vartika Jain, S K Verma  & S S Katewa / Indian Journal Of Traditional Knowledge, Oct 2009; 8(4): pp 638-644
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Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Ceiba pentandra L. Seed Extracts. / ALAGAWADI KALLANGOUDA R, SHAH AMOL S. / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Oct-Dec 2018; 10(4)
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Two New Isoflavones from Ceiba pentandra and Their Effect on Cyclooxygenase-Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis / Yiva Noreen, Hesham El-Seedi, Premila Perera, and Lars Bohlin / J. Nat. Prod.,  1998; 61(1): pp 8–12 / DOI: 10.1021/np970198+
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An investigationintothehealthofkapokworkers / C. G. URAGODA / British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1977; 34: pp181-185

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