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Family Moraceae
Botgo
Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.

WHITE FIG
Da ye chi rong

Scientific names Common names
Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq. Balete (Tag., Ibn., Bon., P. Bis.)
Ficus caulocarpa var. dasycarpa Corner Botgo (Bik.)
Ficus infectoria var. caulocarpa (Miq.) King Bubulung (Sbl.)
Ficus stipulosa Miq. Dalakit (C. Bis.)
Ficus virens var. caulocarpa (Miq.) M.R.Almedia Kuba (Ting.)
Ficus weinlandii K.Schum. Magamano (Bag.)
  Nonok (P. Bis.)
  Pasapla (Ilk.)
  Puspus (Ting.)
  Sanglau (Ilk.)
  White fig (Engl.)
Worldwide there are over 800 species of the genus Ficus (Latin: fig) and of the more than 10 species found in the Philippines, Balete is a shared common name for six of them: (1) Ficus benjamina, salisi (2) Ficus elastica , Indian rubber tree (3) Ficus indica, baleteng-baging (4) Ficus payapa, payapa (5) Ficus retusa, marabutan, and (6) Ficus stipulosa, botgo.
Ficus stipulosa is a synonym of Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq. The Plant List
Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Bukit patoi.
CHINESE: Da ye chi rong.
INDIA: Pakad.
JAPANESE: Oo baakou.

Botany
Botgo is a deciduous tree, starting as an epiphyte, later growing to 10 meters high. Leaves are smooth, entire and shining, oblong, 12 to 20 centimeters long, with tapering pointed tip and usually rounded base, with the petioles 5 to 7 centimeters long. Stipules are membraneous, pink, oblong, about 8 centimeters long. Receptacles are solitary, in pairs, or in fascicles in the axils of the leaves and in the axils of the fallen leaves on the ultimate branchlets, short-pedicelled, nearly spherical, about 5 millimeters in diameter, often in great abundance, 3-bracteate at the base.

Distribution
- Common in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.

Constituents
- Phytochemical studies of leaves have yielded several compounds including lupeol, α-amyrin, ß-amyrin, stigmasterol, and campesterol.
- Studies have yielded the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside alkaloid, protein, amino acid, phytosterol, tannins, and flavonoids.
- Whole plant has yielded infectorin, scutellarein, scutellarein glucoside, sorbifolin, bergapten, bergaptol. (3)

Properties
- Astringent, vulnerary, styptic.
- Studies have suggested anti-filarial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic properties.

Parts used
Fresh roots, bark, leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- The Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Philippines use decoction of leaves for cough. (8)
- In Agusan del Sur, Philippines, plant applied as poultice on sprains.
- Fresh roots used as poultice on wounds.
- Decoction of aerial rootlets used on wounds, cuts, and sores.
- Bark decoctions used for washing ulcers; as gargle in salivations. Also used for menstrual disorders.     (
4)
- Used for treating dermatitis: One cup of chopped bark is boiled in one-half gallon of water for ten minutes. Decoction used to wash the affected areas twice daily. (6)
- In Ayurveda, decoction of root barks of four Ficus species - F. religiosa, F. benghalensis, F. glomerulata, and F. infectoria - called Pancha valkala kashaya is used as a gargle in salivation, as wash for ulcers and as an injection for leucorrhea.
- In India, bark of F. infectoria Roxb. is used for leucorrhea, for expelling round worms, and for treatment of ulcers. Leaves used for treatment of skin diseases.
(3)
- Decoction of latex used for parasitic worms.
- Decoction of chopped bark used for dermatitis and skin eruptions.

Studies
Antifilarial Potential / Cattle Parasite:
In vitro study of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Ficus infectoria showed potent antifilarial activity on Setaria cervi. (3)
Antihyperlipidemic / Hypoglycemic / Antioxidant: Study of methanolic extract of F. infectoria leaf and bark (mixture) in Wistar rats showed antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. Results suggest a potential use in the management of insulin resistance. (5)
• Effect on Atopic Dermatitis / Bark: Study of bark decoction showed a beneficial effect (p<0.05) on a study of nine preschool children with moderate atopic dermatitis. (9)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated September 2018 / August 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ficus caulocarpa / / Abaxial view of leaf / Copyright © 2018: P.B. Pelser & J.F.Barcelona / pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL129003] click on image to go to source page / PhytoImages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Ficus infectoria Roxb. / [Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918] / Payer.de

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen / Ficus infectoria Roxb. / Payer
(2)
Sorting Ficus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(3)
IN VITRO ANTIFILARIAL POTENTIAL OF THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF FICUS INFECTORIA ROXB ON CATTLE PARASITE SETERIA CERVI /Kumar et al. / Pharmacologyonline 2: 266-276 (2007)
(4)
Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf and Bark (Mixture) Extract of Ficus Infectoria Plant / Ashok Kumar, K.K. Jha, Dinesh Kumar, Abhirav Agrawal and Akhil Gupta / THE PHARMA INNOVATION
(5)
Evaluation Of Antihyperlipidemic, Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Potential of Ficus infectoria Methanolic Extract in Wistar Rats / Ashok Kumar Gupta*, Subhash Dwivedi, Aseem Sharma and Gajraj Singh Lodhi / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol 1 No 6, 2013
(6)
MEDICINAL PLANTS AND HERBS USE BY THE SUBANUN OF LIMPAPA, ZAMBOANGA CITY /RUZENDA CONCEPCION BELLEN / APRIL 2008 / Research / PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN PUBLIC HEALTH
(7)
Ficus caulocarpa / Synonyms / The Plant List
(8)
Ethnomedical knowledge of plants and healthcare practices among the  Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines / Teodora D Balangcod & Ashlyn Kim D Balangcod / Indian Journal Of Traditional Knowledge, April 2011;10(2): pp 227-238
(9)
The effect of Ficus stipulosa Miq. Linn. (Balete) bark decoction on atopic dermatitis among selected preschool children in Sitio Holy Name, Mabolo, Cebu City / Daria Sheena Erika A. Badilla, Marc Dominic B. Bueno, Kashia Anne C. Encabo et al / College of Nursing, Cebu Doctor's University






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